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and the AGE of DISCOVERY 




In issuing their Annual Eeport for 1863, being the sixteenth 
anniversary of the existence of the Hakluyt Society, the 
Council have pleasure in announcing that the number of 
members has not decreased, and that the funds continue to 
be in a prosperous condition. 

Since the last General Meeting, the following volumes 
have been delivered to members : — 

1. "The Life and Acts of Don Alonzo Henriquez de 
Guzman, containing a narrative of his adventures in 
Italy, Germany, Spain, the Balearic Isles, and South 
America, during the reign of Charles V, translated from 
a manuscript in the National Library of Madrid. By 
Clements R Markham, Esq., F.S.A. With Notes and an 

2. "The Discoveries of the World, from the first 
original unto the year of our Lord 1555, by Antonio 
Galvano, Governor of Ternate ; corrected, quoted, and 
published in English by Kichard Hakluyt (1601).'' Now 
reprinted, with the original Portuguese text, and edited 
by Eear- Admiral C. R Drinkwater Bethune, C.B. 

The following two works are in the hands of the printer, 
and will shortly be delivered to Members. 

1 . " Marvels described by Friar Jordanus of the Order 

of Preachers, native of Severac, and Bishop of Columbum " 
from a parchment manuscript of the fourteenth century, 
in Latin, the text of which has recently been translated 
and edited by Colonel H. Yule, C.B, r.RG.S, late of 
H.M. Bengal Engineers. 

2. "The Travels of Ludovico di Varthema in Syria, 
Arabia, Persia, India,"" etc., during the sixteenth century. 
Translated by J. Winter Jones, Esq., E.S.A., and edited, 
with Notes and an Introduction, by the Eev. George 
Percy Badger. 

And the following works are in progress : — 

1. "The Travels of Josafa Barbaro and Ambrogio 
Contarini in Tana and Persia.'"' Translated from Eamusio 
by E. A. Roy, Esq., and edited by Major-General Sir 
Henry Rawlinson, K.C.B. 

2. "The Travels of Pedro Cieza de Leon, from the 
Gulf of Darien to the city of La Plata, contained in his 
first part of the Chronicle of Peru, which treats of the 
boundaries and descriptions of provinces, founding of 
new cities, rites and customs of the Indians, and other 
strange things worthy to be known (Antwerp 1554)." 
Translated and edited, with Notes and an Introduction, 
by Clements R. Markham, Esq., E.S.A 

3. " The Discovery and Conquest of the Canary Islands 
by Bethencourt in 1402-25.'' Translated and edited by 
Captain J. G. Goodenough, R.N. 

4. " The Voyage of Vasco de Gama round the Cape of 
Good Hope in 1497, now first translated from a con- 
temporaneous manuscript, accompanied by other docu- 


ments, forming a monograph of the life of De Gama/' 
To be translated and edited by Richard Garnett, Esq., of 
the British Museum. 

5. " The Three Voyages of Sir Martin Frobisher, with 
a selection from his letters now in the State Paper 
Office/' Edited by Dr. Eae. 

The following six Members retire from the Council : — 

J. Barrow, Esq., E.RS. 

Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.P. 

The Right Hon. Sir David Dundas, M.P. 

T. HoDGKiN, Esq., M.D. 

Sir Erskine Perry. 

Sir C. Wentworth Dilke, Bart. 

Of this number, it is recommended that Sir David Dundas 
should become one of the Vice-Presidents, in the room of the 
late Marquis of Lansdowne, and that the three following 
should be re-elected : — 

J. Barrow, Esq., F.RS. 
T. HoDGKiN, Esq., M.D. 
Sir Erskine Perry. 

The names of the three following gentlemen are proposed 
for election : — 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart. 
Captain Cracroft, R.N. 
William Stirling, Esq., M.P. 

THE YEAR 1862-63, 

£ s. d. 
Balance at Bankers' at last Audit 314 17 11 
Received by Bankers during the 

year 234 17 1 

Petty Cash in hand at last Audit. 

£549 15 

£ s. d 

Translating 11 

Mr. J. E. Pdchard, for Paper 19 10 

Mr. Richards, for Printing 146 15 

Transcriptions 2 15 


Gratuities to Agent's Foreman 

for tv\o years 10 

190 9 

Present Balance at Bankers' 357 10 

Present Balance in Petty Cash . . 1 16 

£549 15 

Examined and Approved, June '2dth, 1863. 




Petty Cash in hand at last Audit . . 
Received Jan. 23rd, 1863 5 

s. d. 


£ s. d. 

Postage, July to December 1862 5 

Postage for Jan. to J une 1863, calling 

Three Meetings 4 6 

Two Letters to India (to Asiatic 

Society of J3engal) and others 4 1 

MacDonagh, for transcribing (see 

receipted bill, No. 4) 2 15 

£3 4 

Balance in hand 116 



June '29th, 1863. 





Mem. Imp. Acad. Sc. St. Petersburg, Corr. Mem. Inst. Fr., &c. &c. 

Vice-Presidents. C. R. DUINKWATER BETHUNE. C.B. 
Tub Right Hon. SIR DAVID DUNDAS, M.P. 


His Exceixkncy the Count de 

R. H. MA.IOR, Esq.. F.S.A. 
Sir C marines Is'ICHOLSON, Bart. 
Major-general Sir HENRY C. RAW- 


J. BARROW, Esq., F.R.S. 


Captain CRACROc-'T, R.N 



R. W. GREY, Esq., M.P. 

T. HODGKIN. Esq., M.D. 


Honorary Secretary-c R. markham, Esq.. f.s.a., f.r.g.s. 
Bankers-MESSRS. ransom, BOUVERIE, and Co., l, Pall Mall East 

THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY, which is established for the purpose 
of Drintino- rare or unpublished Voyages and Travels aims at opening 
by S means an easier access to the sources of a branch of know- 
ledo-e which yields to none in importance, and is superior to most m 
acn^ekble variety. The narratives of travellers and navigators make us 
acquitted with^the earth, its inhabitants and productions; they exhibit 
S growth of intercourse among mankind, with its effects on cm ization 
and while instructing, they at the same time awaken attention, by 
recounting the toils and adventures of those who first explored unknown 
and distant regions. . 

The advantage of an Association of this kind, consists not merely m its 
system of literSry co-operation, but also in its economy. The acqmi-e- 
Sents taste, and discrimination of a number of individuals who feel an 
Sterek in the same pursuit, are thus brought to act m voluntary com- 
bination and the ordinary charges of publication are also avoided, so that 
the vXmes produced are distributed among the Members (who can alone 
obtain themf at little more than the cost of P-^^mg and pape^^^^^^^ 
Society expends the whole of its funds m the preparation of ^J^^ ^-/^^^^^^^^ 
Members -and since the cost of each copy varies inversely as the whole 
niTber of copies printed, it is obvious that the Members are gainers 
rnTvidually brthe'prosperity of the Society, and the consequent vigour 
of its operations. , . , 7 , 

JVe^v Members have, at present, the privilege of ^^^''^^f^Jf j^^^^^ ^f 
set ofthejmhlications of the Society for previous years for twelve guineas, 
hut have not the poiver of selecting any particular volume. 

The Members are requested to bear in ^^^^ that the power of the 
Council to make advantageous arrangements, will depend, m a gieat 

meagre, on the prompt prrymeM of the -b-"P^.--%^;^;,f/^^,P^i:t, 
in advance on the 1st of January, and are received by Mr. Kichards, 
37 Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, who is the Society s agent 
?or' the deWy of its volumes. Post Office Orders should be drawn on 
the Charing Cross Post Ojjice. 

Sepleiiiber 186-3. 


1— The Observations of Sir Richard Hawkins, Knt. 

In his Voyage into the South Sea in 1593. Reprinted from the edition of 1622, and edited by 
Capt. C. R. Drinkwater Bbthune, R.N., C.B. [Issaedfur 1S47. 

2— Select Letters of Columbus. 

With Original Documents relating to the Discovery of the New World. Translated and 
Edited by R. H. Major, Esq., of the British Museum. {_Issiied for 1847. 

3— The Discoverie of the Empire of Guiana, 

By Sir AValter Ralegh, Knt. Edited, with Copious Explanatory Notes, and a Biographical 
Memoir, by Sir Robert H. Schomburgk, Phil. D., etc. [Issued for 1848. 

4— Sir Francis Drake his Voyage, 1595, 

By Thomas MiYNARDE, together with the Spanish Account of Drake's Attack on Puerto Rico, 
edited from the Original MSS., by W. D. Cooley, Esq. [Issued for 1848. 

5— Narratives of Early Voyages 

Undertaken for the Discovery of a Passage to Cathaia and India, by the Northwest, with 

Selections from the Records of the worshipful Fellowship of the Merchants of Loudon, trading 

into the East Indies; and from MSS. in the Library of the British Museum, now first 

published, by Thomas Rundall, Esq. [Issued for 1849. 

6— The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia, 

Expressing the Cosmographie and Commodities of the Country, together with the Manners 
and Customs of the people, gathered and observed as well by those who went first thither as 
collected by William Strachey, Gent, the first Secretary of the Colony ; now first Edited from 
the original manuscript in the British Museum, by R. H. Major, Esq., of the British Museum. 

[Issued for 1849. 

7— Divers Voyages touching the Discovery of America 

And the Islands adjacent, collected and published by Richard Hakluyt, Prebendary of 

Bristol, in the year 1582. Edited, with Notes and an Introduction, by John Winter Jones, 

Esq., of the British Museum. [Issued for 1850. 

8— A Collection of Documents on Japan. 

With a Commentary, by Thomas Rundall, Esq. [Issued for 1850. 
9— The Discovery and Conquest of Florida, 

By Don Ferdinando de Soto. Translated out of Portuguese, by Richard Hakluyt; and 
Edited with Notes and an Introduction, by W. B. Rye, Esq., of the British Museum. 

[Issued for 1851. 

10— Notes upon Russia, 

Being a Translation from the Earliest Account of that Country, entitled Rerum Moscovtti- 
c.\RUM Commentarii, by the Baron Sigismuud von Herberstein, Ambassador from the Court 
of Germany to the Grand Prince Vasiley Ivanovich, in the years 1517 and 1526. Two Volumes. 
Translated', and Edited with Notes and an Introduction, by R. H. Major, Esq., of the 
British Museum. Vol.1. [Issued for 18b1. 

11— The Geography of Hudson's Bay. 

Being the Remarks of Captain W. Coats, in many Voyages to that locality, between the years 

1727 and 1751 . With an Appendix, containing Extracts from the Log of Capt. Middleton on 

his Voyage for the discovery of the North-west Passage, in H.M.S. "Furnace", in 1741-2. 

Edited by John Barrow, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. [Issued for 1852. 

12— Notes upon Russia. Vol. 2. [issued for 1852. 

13— Three Voyages by the North-east, 

Towards Cathay and China, undertaken by the Dutch in the years 1594, 1595, and 1590, with 
their Discovery of Spitzbergen, their residence often months in Novaya Zemlya, and their safe 
return in two open boats. By Gerrit de Veer, Edited by C. T. Beke, Esq., Ph.D., F'.S.A. 

[Issued for 1853. 

14-15— The History of the Great and Mighty Kingdom of China and 
the Situation 1 hereof. 

(Jompiled by the Padre Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza. And now Reprinted from the Early 
Translation of R. Parke. Edited by Sir George T. Staunton, Bart. With an Introduc- 
tion by R. 11. Major, Esq. 2 vols. [ Issued for 18bi. 

16— The "World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake. 

Being his next Voyage to that to Nonibro do I>ios. Collated with an uiipuhlished Manuscript 

of Francis Fletcheu, Chaplain to the ExpodiLion. With Aiipendiccbillu.slrative of the same 

Voyage, aud lutroductiou, by W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., M.A. llssuedfor 1855. 

17— The History of the Tartar Conquerors who Subdued China, 

From the French of tlie Vvre D'Orlcans, 1088. Translated and I'^dited by the Eahl of 
Ellesmkre. With an lutroductiou by 11. II. Major, Esq. flamed Jor 1855. 

18— A Collection of Early Documents on Spitzbergen and Greenland, 

Consisting of: a translation from the German of F. Marten's important work on Spitzljergen, 
now very rare; a translation from Isaac de la Peyrii^'e's Relation do Groeuland, and a rare 
piece entitled " God's Power and Providence showed in the miraculous jireservatiou and 
deliverance of eight Englishmen, left by mischance in Greenland, anno 1U;JU, nine moneths 
aud twelve days, faithfully reported by Edward Pelham." Edited, with Notes, by 

Adam White, I'^sq., of the British Museum. {^Issued for 1850. 

19- The Voyage of Sir Henry Middleton to Bantam and the Maluco Islands. 

From the rare Edition of 160G, Edited by Bolton Couney, Esq. llssuedfor 1856. 

20 -Russia at the Close of the Sixteenth Century. 

Comprising " The Russe Commonwealth" by Dr. Giles Fletcher, and Sir Jerome Horsey's 

Travels, now first printed entire from his manuscript in the Britisli J\luseum. Edited by 

E. A. JjONo, Esq., of the British Museum. llssitedfov 1857. 

21— The Travels of Girolamo Benzoni in America, in 1542-56. 

Translated and edited by Admiral W. H. Smyth, F.R.S., F.S.A. [ Issued for 1857. 

22— India in the Fifteenth Century. 

Being a Collection of Narratives of Voyages to India in the century preceding the Portuguese 
discovery of the Cape of Good Hope; fiom I,atin, Persian, Russian, and Italian sources, 
nowfirsl^ translated into English. Edited, with an Introduction, by R. H. Major, Esq., F.S.A. 

llssuedfor 1858. 

23— Narrative of a Voyage to the West Indies and Mexico, 

In the Years 1599-1C02, with Maps aud Illustrations. By Samuel Champlain. Translated 

from the original and unpublished Manuscript, with a Biographical Notice and Notes by 

Alice Wilmere. Edited by Norton Shaw. llssuedfor 1858. 

24-Expeditions into the Valley of the Amazons 

During the Sixteenth and Seventeen* centuries : containing the Journey of Gonzalo 
Pizarro, from the Royal Commentaries of Garcilasso Inca de la Vega ; the Voyage of 
Francisco de Orellana, from the General History of TIf.rrera; and the Voyage of Cris- 
toval de Acuna, from an exceedingly scarce narrative written by himself, iu 1G41. Edited 
and translated by Clements R. Markham, Esq. [Lisuedfor 1859. 

25— Early Indications of Australia. 

A Collection of Documents shewing the Early Discoveries of Australia to the time of Captain 
Cook. Edited by R. H. Major, Esq., of the British Museum, F.S.A. llssuedfor la59. 

26-The Embassy of Euy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the Court of Timour, 1403-6. 

Translated, for the hrst time, with Notes, a Preface, and an Introductory Life of 'J'imour Beg. 
By Clements R. Markham, Esq., F.R.G.S. llssuedfor 18U0. 

27-Henry Hudson the Navigator 

The Original Documents in which his career is recorded. Collected, partly Translated, and 
Annotated, with an lutroductiou, by George Asher, Esq., LL.D. llssuedfor 1860. 

28 -The Expedition of Ursua and Aguirre, 

In search of El Dorado and Omagua, a.d. 1500-01, translnted from the " Sexta Noticia historial" 
of Frav Pedro Simon, by W. Bollaeut, Esq.; with au introduction by C.R. Markham, Esq. 
"' llssuedfor 1861. 

29-Th8 Life and Acts of Don Alonzo Enriquez de Guzman. 

Translated from a Manuscript in the National Library at Madrid, aud edited with Notes and 
an Introduction, by Clements R. Markham, Esq. llssuedjor 1862. 

30— Marvels described by Friar Jordanus, 

Of the Order of Preachers, native of Severac, and Bishop of Columbum ; from a parchment 
manuscript of the Fourteenth Century, in Latin, the text of which has recently been 
Translated and Edited by Colonel H. Yule, C.B,, F.R.G.S., hxte of U.M. Benijal Engineers. 

llssuedjor 18C2. 

31— The Travels of ludovico di Varthema 

In Syria, Arabia, Persia, India, etc., during the Sixteenth Century. Translated by J. 

Winter Jones, Esq., E.S.A., and edited, with Notes and an Introduction, by the 

Eev. George Percy Badger. llsmedfor 1603. 

Other Works in Progress. 

The Travels of Josafa Barb>ro and Ambrogio Contarini in Tana and Persia. Translated 
from Rarausio by E. A. Roy, Esq., and edited, with an Introduction, by Major- 
General Sir Henry EA^YLIN30N, K.C.B. 

The Travels of Pedro Cieza de Leon, from the Gulf of Darien to the city of La F^lata 
ccntained in his first part of the Chronicle of Peru, which treats of the boundaries and 
desciiptions of pr- vinces, founding of new cities, rile^ and customs of the Indians and 
other strange things worthy to be known (Antwerp, 1554). Translated and edited, 
with Notes and an Introduction, by Clements R. Markham, Esq., F.S.A. 

The Discovery and Conquest of the Canary Islands, by Bethencourt in 1402-25. 
Translated and edited by Captain J. G. Goodenougii, R.N. 

The Voyage of Vasco de Gama round the Cape of Good Hope iu 1-497, now first Translated 
fj-om a cotemporaneous manuscript, accompanied by other documents forming a 
monograph on the life of De Gama. To be translated and edited by Richard 
Gahnett, Esq., of the British Museum. 

^he Three Voyages of Sir Martin Frobisher, with a selection from his Letters now iu 
the State Paper Office. Edited by Dr. Rae. 

Works suggested to the Council for Publication. 

The Fifth l,etter of Hernando Cortes, describing his Voyage to Honduras in 1525-26. 
Voyages of Alvaro de Mandana and Pedro B'ernandez de Quiros in the South Seas, to be 

translated from Suarez de Figueroa's " Hechos del Marques da Cailete," and 

I'oi quemada's " Monarquia Indiana." 
Inedited Letters, etc., of Sir Thomas Roe, during his Embassy to India. 
The Travels of Friar Odoric in India. 
The Voyage of John Saris to India and Japan in 1611-13, from a manuscript copy of his 

Journal, dated 1617. 

Laws of the Hakluyt Society. 

I. The object of this Society shall be to print, for distribution among its members, rare 
and valuable Voyages, Travels, Naval Expeditions, and other geograpihical records, from an 
early period to the beginning of the eighteenth century. 

II. The Annual Subscription shall be One Guinea, payable in advance on the 1st January. 

III. Each member of the Society, having paid his Subscription, shall be entitled to a 
copy of every work produced by the Society, and to vote at the general meetings within the 
period subscribed for; and if he do not signify, before the close of the year, his wish to i-esign, 
he shall be considered as a member for the succeeding year. 

IV. The management of the Society's affairs shall be vested in a Council consisting of 
twenty-one members, viz., a President, two Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, and seventeen 
ordinary members, to be elected annually; but vacancies occurring between the general 
meetings shall be filled up by the Council. 

V. A General Meeting of the Subscribers shall be held annually, on the first Thursday 
in March. The Secretary's Report on the condition and proceedings of the Society shall be 
then read, and, along with the Auditor's Report, be submitted for approval, and, finally, the 
Meeting shall proceed to elect the Council for the ensuing year. 

VI. At each Annual Election, six of the old Council shall retire: and a list of the 
proposed new Council shall be printed for the subscribers previous to the general meeting. 

VII. The Council shall meet ordinarily on the 2ud Monday in every month, excepting 
August, September, and October, for the dispatch of business, three forming a quorum, and 
the Chairman having a casting vote. 

VIII. Gentlemen preparing and editing works for the Society, shall receive twenty-five 
copies of such works respectively. 

IX. The number of copies printed of the Society's productions shall not exceed the 
estimated number of Subscribers ; so that after the second year, when the Society may be 
supposed to have reached its full growth, there shall be no extra copies. 

X. The Society shall appoint Local Secretaries, throughout the kingdom, empowered to 
enrol members, transmit subsciiptions, and otherwise forward the Society's interests; and it 
shall loake such arrangements with its correspondents in the chief provincial towns as will 
insure to subscribers residing in the country the regular delivery of their volumes at 
moderate charges. 



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CJe i?alilu|)t 0otitt^. 








(circa 1330). 










Hon. Mem. Imp. Acad. Sc. St. Petersburg, etc.. etc., Puesident. 

RKAK-ADMi«A. C. R. DRINKWATKR BETHUKK, ^-^■)^^^^.^^,,,,,^,,, 
The Rt. Hon. Sir DAVID DUNDAS, M.P. ) 

J. BARROW, Esq., F.R.S. 


Captain CRACROFT, R.N. 

Sir henry ELLIS, K.H., F.R.S. 


R. \V. GREY, Esq., M.P. 

T. HODGKIN, Esq., M.D. 


His Excellency the COUNT DE LAVRADIO. 

R. H. MAJOR, Esq., F.S.A. 



Major-general Sir HENRY C. RA\YLINSON, K.C.B 


CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, Esq., Honorary Secretaky. 







Dear Sir Bartle Frere, 

There is no time to ask your assent to 
this dedication. But I have trust enough in your 
love for old travellers, and in your good-will to the 
editor, to venture it without permission. I have 
some hope too that I introduce to you a new ac- 
quaintance in the Bishop of Columbum, whose book 
seems little known. 

Like many other old travellers of more fame, 
whilst endeavouring to speak only truth of what he 
has seen, Jordanus retails fables enough from hearsay. 
What he did see in his travels was so marvellous to 
him, that he was quite ready to accept what was 
told him of regions more remote from Christendom, 
when it seemed but in reasonable proportion more 
marvellous. If' there were cats with wings in Mala- 


bar, as he had seen,^ why should there not be people 
with dogs' heads in the Islands of the Ocean P If 
black men cut off their own heads before their gods 
at Columbum,^ why should not " white and fat men" 
be purchased as delectable food in Java 1* If there 
were rats nearly as big as foxes in India Major,^ 
why should there not be rocs that could fly away 
with elephants in India Tertia 1^ 

Apart from this credulity, it might be well if the 
heads of some of our modern sojourners in India 
could be endowed with a little more of that Organ 
of Wonder which gave these old story-tellers such a 
thorough enjoyment of the real marvels of the East, 
and could by its help see something worthier there 
than a howling wilderness, affording no consolation 
but that silver fruit, which, like the coco-nut de- 
scribed by our author, is borne twelve times in the 

Were Jordanus to come to life again, he would see 
many changes no doubt, but he would still find many 
landmarks standing after the five and a half centu- 
ries. To say nothing of the " Coquodriles"^ and the 
horrible heat,^ he would find the Parsis still dis- 
posing of their dead in their strange old fashion,^^ the 
Nairs still handing down their succession in oblique 
descent,^ 1 the Doms still feeding on offal and doing 
the basest drudgeries,^^ the poor Poliars still dwell- 

1 See p. 29. 

5 See p. 29. 

^ See p. 22. 

2 „ p 44. 

' „ p. 42. 

'' „ p. 21. 

« „ p. 33. 

' „ p. 15. 

11 „ p. 32. 

' „ p. 31. 

^ „ p. 19. 

1^ „ p. 21. 


ing in dens and howling by the wayside,^ the ox still 
"honoured like a father,"^ and the idols still " dragged 
through the land like the Virgin at Eogation- 
tidesT^ he might even hear now and then of "living 
women taking their places on the fire and dying with 
their dead.'"^ Much therefore of evil he would find 
very persistent. How on the other side ? He would 
indeed also find the Hindus still " clean in feeding" 
but would he still pronounce them to be " true in 
speech and eminent in justice]"^ Is it not to be 
feared that he would find not only the wealth of that 
Columbum, which in the days of his bishopric was 
hidden by the masts of all the East from Yemen to 
Cathay, as far gone by as the splendours of the kings 
of Telinga and Narsinga, but the natural life and 
genius of the people degenerate and their inborn arts 
in decay ? He would indeed see vigorous efforts in 
action to introduce a new life into the country ; in- 
stead of Diabolus roaring in the woods by night*^ he 
might hear the scream of the locomotive ; and he 
would meet among those Western conquerors who, 
in strange fulfilment of the prophecies of his own 
day,^ are now ruling India, some confident believers 
in the renovation of the land through the introduc- 
tion of the material progress of Europe. 

Will that belief be justified ] I am not likely to 
undervalue the work in w^hich my best years have 

1 See p. 35. ^ See p. 21. 

'' „ p. 25. ^ „ p. 22 

3 „ p. 33. 6 ,, p. 37. 

' „ p. 30. 


been spent ; but surely that alone will not serve. 
The question that carried Jordanus to the East five 
hundred and forty years ago is still the great question 
for India, however Providence may solve it. Till 
India becomes Christian there is no hope of real life 
and renovation. Would Jordanus Redivivus discern 
much progress in this direction since the days of his 
episcopate 1 How like his talk about the matter is 
to that of our own missionaries in the nineteenth 
century !^ Hindu Christians are still a feeble and 
scattered folk,^ and the advance towards Christian 
light seems to all who care not, and to many who do 
care, almost nothing. But it is encouraging to know 
that you think very differently, and few indeed have 
had at once your capacity and your opportunity for a 
just judgment. 

I am ever, dear Sir Bartle, 

Your faithful friend and servant, 

H. Yule. 

Genoa, October 14th, 1863. 

1 See p. 55. ^ See p. 23. 

C O N T E N T S . 


Source, iii, iv. Pai-ticvilars known of the author, iv-viii. Another work 
ascribed to him, ix. Extract from this, narrating the martyi'dom of 
four friars in India, x-xii. Identity of Columbum, his see, with the 
modern Quilon, xii-xvii. The author's Latinity, xvii. Coincidences 
with other travellers, xvii, xviii. 


[the mediterranean.] 

§ 1. The whii-lpool of the Faro. 2, The flux of Eiu-ipus. 3. Earthquakes 
at Thebes. 



§ 1. Mount Ai'arat and its legends. The vines of Noah. 2. Miu'tyrdom 
of apostles, and their miracles. 3. Other martyrs. 4. Conversion 
of the schismatics by the Missionary Friars. 5. Rulers of Armenia. 
6. Its Dead Sea. 7. Its extent. 8, 9. Other pai'ticulai's of Ai"- 



§ 1. Tabriz; absence of dew and rain; manna, 2, Conversions to Holy 
Church ; Ur of the Chaldees. 3. Sultania. 4. Onagn. 5. People 
and productions of Persia. 6. Its extent, and uncleanly manners of 
the people. 7. Springs of pitch. 8. Manna ; flowing sands ; general 
character of those countries. 



§ 1. Date-palnis. 2. Absence of springs, and of rain for nine months; 
heavy dews. 3. Marvels. Habits of the people. 4. Variation of 
days and nights. 5, 6. Fruits of India ; Chaqui and Bloqui (the jack- 
fiaiit). 7, 8, 9. The mango, lemons, vines, etc. 10. The coco-nut 
and its products. 11. Other trees giving liquor; the Banyan de- 
scribed. 12, 13, 14. Wild beasts — the Lynx, the Ehinoceros. 15. 
Marvellous serpents. 16. The Crocodile. 17. Birds, and great Bats. 
18. Other bii-ds. 19. Wars in India contemptible. 20,21. Precious 
stones. 22. Widow bui-ning. 23. The Parsis described. 24. The 
Doms. 25. Ginger ; Sugar-cane ; Cassia fistula. 26. High character 
of the people. 27. Heat. 28. Few metals ; no spices but ginger. 
29. Eavages of the Saracens. 30. Pagan prophecies. 31. Christians 
of St. Thomas, and their ignorance. 32. Conversions to the faith. 
33. Tolerant spirit of the idolaters. 34. Their manner of sacrifice. 

35. Their idols, etc. ; their reverence for oxen. 36, 37. Blackness a 
beauty in India. 



§1,2. The Elephant described. 3. Spices. 4. Ginger; Pepper described; 
Cinnamon. 5. Islands of India ; Ceylon. 6. Pearl fishery. 7. Bii-ds. 
8. Marvels of the islands. 9. Winged cats (flying squirrels). 10. 
The Talipat's great leaves. 11. The king of Ceylon and his rubies. 
12. Island of Naked Polk. 13-16. Great island of Java (the Archi- 
pelago in general) ; Spices ; Pygmies ; Cloves ; Cannibals. 17. Dress 
in India. 18. That of the kings. 19. Inheritance in the female 
line only (Nairs). 20. Vows of self-immolation. 21-27. Particulars 
of climate and celestial phenomena. 28. Wild Forest Eaces. 29. 
Serpents. 30. Eemarkable wasps. 31. White ants. 32, 33. Eed 
kites. 34. Great bird that wails by night. 35. The Devil speaketh. 

36. Marvellous land. 37. Champa (India ultra Gangem), and its 
abundance of elephants. 38. Wars of elephants. 39. Ivory. 40. 
Mode of captuiing elephants. 41. Kings of (Southern) India de- 
tailed, etc. 



§1,2. Speaks from trustworthy report only. Legend of di-agons and car- 


buncles. Prester John. 3. The Roc. 4. The true unicorn. 5. The 
civet. 6. The terrestrial paradise. 7. Serpents. 8. Negroes de- 
scribed. 9. Mighty hunters. 10. Ambergris. 11. Zebras. 12, 13. 
Islands of Men only and Women only. 14, 15. Other islands. Dog- 
headed Folk. 



§ 1. Incense and myrrh. 2. Low civilization. 3. Deserts. 4. ^Ethiopia 
and its monsters. 5. The great power of the Lord thereof. G, 7, 8. 
Other particulars. 



§ 1. His wealth, power, and liberality. 2. Paper money. 3. Singular 
resemblance to Catholic practices. 4, 5. Funeral rites. 6, 7. Great 
cities of this empii-e. 8. High civilization. 9. Rhubarb ; musk de- 
scribed. 10, Porcelain. 11. Burial of the emperor. 12, 13, 14. 
Sundry particulars. 



§ 1 Babylon deserted ; its terrors. 2, 3, 4. Sundiy monstrous appearances. 


There is nothing to be said. 



§ 1. The Three Kings. 2. Baku, a,nd its pits of naphtha. 


Self-styled Christians. Fifteen different nations. 


'Tis like Europe. 



§ 1. Distance to Constantinoi3le. 2. Thence to Tartary. 3. Extent of 
the Persian (Tartar) Empire. 4. Of Lesser India. 5. Of Greater 
India. 6. The Vessels of the Indies. 7. Extent of Cathay. 8. Popu- 
lation of ^Ethiopia (?). 9. Other two Tartar Empires. 10. The 
Vessels of Cathay. 11. Grsecia (?). 12. Superior advantages of 
Christendom, but the Eastern Converts better Christians. 13. What 
is needed to convert India. 14. The Author's own experiences, and 
sufferings from the Saracens. Martyrdom of nine brethren. 15 The 
French King might subdue the world. 



Mastick. The deeds of Captain Martin Zachary. 


§ 1. Andreolo Cathani, a Genoese Captain. His manufacture of alum 
described. 2. The VII Churches, and Sepulchre of Saint John. 
3, 4. The country and people characterized. 


The little work here presented was printed in the 
original Latin at Paris in 1839, under the editor- 
ship of M. Coquebert-Montbret, in the Recueil de 
Voyages et de Memoires, puhlie par la Societe de Geo- 
graphie^ vol. iv. 

I cannot find that it has ever been published or 
translated in England, or even noticed in any Eng- 
lish book, except in the Ceylon of Sir James Emer- 
son Tennent, where there is an allusion to it. 

The book itself does not add anything to our know- 
ledge ; but the observations of a traveller who resided 
in India so far back as the beginning of the four- 
teenth century must be very dull indeed if sufficient 
interest cannot be derived from their date to make 
them acceptable. Nor do I think our author is dull, 
whilst I regret that he is so brief, and has omitted so 
much that he might really have laid up as an addi- 
tion to our knowledge. The very fact that there 
were Roman Catholic missionaries and a bishop in 
India at that period, just between the days of Marco 
Polo and those of Ibn Batuta, may indeed be exca- 
vated from old ecclesiastical chronicles ; but it is 



certainly unfamiliar to the knowledge of those who 
do not dig in such mines. 

The translation which follows has been made, and 
the brief particulars which I shall give respecting 
the author have been derived, from the Recueil above 

The manuscript from which the French editor 
transcribed belonged to the Baron Walckenaer. It 
is on parchment, of the fourteenth century, and con- 
tains other matter, the work of Jordanus occupying 
twenty-nine quarto pages. 

The author is termed a native of Severac. That 
he was a Frenchman will appear from several pas- 
sages in his book. But there are at least five places 
of the name of Severac in France. Three of these 
are in the district of E^ouergue, in the department of 
the Aveyron (near the eastern boundary of the old 
province of Guyenne, and some ninety miles N.E. 
of Toulouse), and it was probably from one of 
these that he came. There was a noble family of 
this province called De Severac, of which was 
Amaulry de Severac, Marshal of France in the time 
of Charles VII. But, as will afterwards appear, our 
traveller was called Catalani? 

^ I have to regret that unavoidable circumstances have inter- 
rupted my pleasant task, and have compelled me to leave this 
preface, and some part of the commentary, in a cruder state than 
I should have allowed, had time permitted of the search for further 
particulars or illustrations of the author's life, mission, and descrip- 

^ The French editor regards this as his surname. Is it not more 
probably only the genitive of his father's name ? 


The dates of his birth, his death, or his first going 
to the East, are undetermined. But it is ascertained 
that he was in the East in 1321-1323, that he re- 
turned to Europe, and started again for India, in or 
soon after 1330. There appears to be nothing to 
determine whether this book of Mirahilia was written 
on his first, or on a subsequent, return to Europe. 

The authorities for the dates just given are the 
following : — 

Two letters from Jordan us are found in a MS. in 
the national library at Paris (in 1 839, — Bibliotheque 
du Eoi— MS. No. 5,006, p. 182), entitled Liher de 
cetatibus, etc. The first of these is dated from Caga,^ 
r2th October, 1321. It is addressed to members of 
his own order (the Dominican) and of that of St. 
Francis, residing at Tauris, Tongan, and Marogo,^ 
and points out three stations adapted for the es- 
tablishment of missions, viz., Supera, Paroco, and 
Columbum. On the receipt of these letters, Nice- 

^ ** Which I suspect to be Conengue or Khounouk, a port of 
Persia, on the Persian Gulf," {French Editor). Speaking without 
having seen the letter, I should rather suspect it to be the island 
and roadstead of Karracli, called by the Arabs Khdrej, but also 
locally, as appears by the Government charts, Khdrg. (My friend 
Mr. Badger thinks it may be El-Kdt, an ancient port still much 
frequented, fifty miles south-west of the mouth of the Euphrates.) 
I find from M. D'Avezac in Rec. de Voyages, (iv. 421), that this 
letter is published in Quetif 8f Echard, Scriptoris Ordinis Dom., i. 
p. 549, and that the second letter is given by Wadding, Amiales 
Minorum, vi. 359. 

^ Tauris, Tabriz; Tongan, which the French editor calls ''Dja- 
gorgan" (.?), is probably Daumghan in Persia, south of Astrabad, 
mentioned by Marco Polo (ii. 17), with an allusion to the Chris- 


laus Romanus, who was Vice-Custos of the Dommi- 
cans in Persia, is stated to have started for India.^ 

In his second letter, dated in January, 1324, Jor- 
danus relates how he had started from Tabriz to go 
to Cathay, but embarked first for Columbum with 
four Franciscan missionaries, and how they were 
driven by a storm to Tana,^ in India, where they 
were received by the Nestorians. There he left his 
companions, and started for Baroch, where he hoped 
to preach with success, as he was better acquainted 
with the Persian tongue than the others were. Being 
detained however at Supera, he there heard that his 
four brethren at Tana had been arrested, and re- 
turned to aid them, but found them already put to 
death. He was enabled to remove the bodies of 
these martyrs by the help of a young Genoese 
whom he found at Tana, and, having transported 

tians there ; and Marogo is Maragha in the plain east of Lake 
Urumia, formerly the capital of the Tartar Hulakii. 

1 Which shows that the places indicated by Jordanus were in 
India. Paroco is of course Baroch, and Columbum, Coulam or 
Quilon. Respecting the identity of this last we shall, however, 
have to speak more fully. Supera, the French editor states, after 
D'Anville, to be " the port now called Sefer, the Sefara el Hind 
of the Arabs." It is doubtless the Supara of Ptolomy, which he 
places on the north of the first great river south of the Namadus 
or Nerbudda. Masudi also says that Sefara was four days' jour- 
ney from Cambay. These indications fix Supera on the Tapti, 
over against Surat, and probably as the ancient representative of 
that port. (See Reinaud's Mem. sur la Geog. de VInde, and Vin- 
cent's Periplics of the Erythrcean Sea, p. 385.) 

2 A town on the island of Salsette, about twelve miles from 
Bombay, and formerly a port of considerable importance. 


them to Supera, he buried them in a church there as 
honourably as he could. "^ 

The only remaining date in the biography of Jor- 
danus is derived from a bull of Pope John XXII., 
the date of which is equivalent to 5th April 1330, 
addressed to the Christians of Columbum, and in- 
tended to be delivered to them by Jordanus, who was 
nominated bishop of that place. The bull com- 
mences as follows : — ^ 

" Nobili viro domino Nascarinorum et universis sub eo 
Christianis Nascarinis de Columbo, Venerabilem fratrem 
nostrum Jordanum Catalani, episcopum Columbensem, Prse- 
dicatorum Ordinis professorem, quern nuper ad episcopalis 
dignitatis apicem auctoritate apostolica duximus promoven- 

The Pope goes on to recommend the missionaries 
to their goodwill, and ends by inviting the Nascarini 
{Nazrdni, Christians, in India) to abjure their schism, 
and enter the unity of the Catholic Church. 

The Pope had shortly before nominated John de 
Core to be Archbishop of Sultania in Persia. This 
metropolitan had, at least, three bishops under him, 
viz., of Tabriz, of Semiscat, and of Columbum.'^ 

^ According to the Acta Sanctorum of the Bollandists, this mar- 
tyrdom took place, 1st April 1322. There is a letter from Francis 
of Pisa (I presume in the MS. above quoted), a comrade and 
friend of Jordanus, which gives similar details. They are also 
found in the Bibliotheca Hispanica Veins of Nicol. Antonio, p. 
268. {French Editor's Comment.) See also below, pp. ix— xii. 

2 Quoted by the French editor from Odericns Raynaldus, Annal. 
Eccles., No. 55. 

•^ The French editor supposes Semiscat to be, perhaps, a mis- 


The two latter were entrusted by the Pope with the 
Pallium for the archbishop. Sultania, between Tabriz 
and Tehran, was the seat of the Persian kings pre- 
vious to the Tartar conquest in the thirteenth century, 
and was still a great centre of commerce between the 
Indies and Europe. The number of Christians was 
so great, that they had in this city, it is said, four 
hundred churches. C?)^ 

We may suppose that Jordanus, after fulfilling his 
commission at Sultania, proceeded to his see in 
Malabar by the Persian Gulf, the route which he had 
followed on his first visit to India ; but whether he 
ever reached it, or ever returned from it, seems to be 
undetermined.^ M. Coquebert-Montbret assumes 
that he did both ; but as far as I can gather, this is 
based on the other assumption, that his Mirahilia was 
written after returning a second time. My impres- 
sion is that it was written before he went out as 
bishop, for it contains no allusion to his having held 

reading for Samirkat = Samarkarid. Mr. Badger suggests judi- 
ciously Someisdt, the ancient Samosata, There was another see 
under Sultania, viz., Verna, supposed by D'Avezac to be Orna or 
Ornas, which he identifies with Tana, the seat of a Venetian fac- 
tory at the mouth of the Don, on the site of ancient Tanais. (^Rec. 
de Voy., iv. 510.) 

^ The editor does not give his authority for this. Sultania was 
destroyed by Tamerlane, and never recovered its former imjDort- 
ance. It was still a city of some size in the time of Chardin, 
but is now apparently quite deserted. It is not mentioned by 
M. Polo. 

2 I conclude, from a passage near the end of the work (ch. xiv.), 
that the actual residence of -Jordanus at Columbum, previous to 
his writing, lasted only a year, or thereabouts. 


that dignity. Nor does it appear to be known 
whether he had any successor in his episcopate. 

Another work appears to have been traced wdth 
some plausibility to our author. It is a chronicle 
composed in the fourteenth century, and quoted by 
Muratori from a MS. which in 1740 existed in the 
Vatican library, with the No. 1960. It is adorned 
with fine miniatures, and is entitled 

"Satyrica gestarum rerum, regum et regnorum, atque 
summorum pontificum, historia, a creatione mundi usque ad 
Henricum VII. Romanum augustum." 

The chronicle ends with the year 1320, and pur- 
ports to be written by one Jordanus. The passage 
which is considered to identify him wdtli our author 
is one relating to the martyrdom of four Minor Friars 
at Tana, and is so interesting in itself as to be worth 
quoting at length. It is very perplexing, that though 
several of the circumstances appear to identify his 
narrative with that which forms the subject of our 
author's letter quoted in a previous page, the dates 
are irreconcilable. This difficulty the French editor 
does not notice, nor can I solve it.^ 

^ I have now no doubt that the date in the next line is wrong. 
For, according to M. D'Avezac (in the same volume of the Rec. de 
Voijages, which contains Jordanus, p. 417), the celebrated traveller 
Odoricus of Friuli, who was at Tana in 1322, sent home a letter 
describing this martyrdom as having occurred in the preceding 
year. It is in the Bib. Royale (now Imperiale) at Paris. The nar- 
rative, in still greater detail than here, is indeed to be found in the 
Itinerary of Odoricus, as published in Hakluyt, at least in the 
Latin; the English translation does not give the details. From 
this error in date, as well as the better style of Latin, I should 
doubt if this chronicle was written by our Jordanus. 


" Mdcccxix. Pope John read in the consistory, with 
great approval, a letter which he had received, to the effect 
following: To wit, that certain brethren of the orders of 
Minors and Preachers, who had been sent on a mission to 
Ormus to preach the faith to the infidels, when they found 
that they could do no good there, thought it well to go over 
to Columbum in India. And when they arrived at the 
island called Dyo,^ the brethren of the order of Minors 
separated from the rest of the party, both Preachers and 
secular Christians, and set out by land to a place called 
Thana, that they might there take ship for Columbum. 
Now there was at that place a certain Saracen of Alexandria, 
Ysufus^ by name, and he summoned them to the presence 
of Melich, the governor of the land, to make inquest how 
and why they were come. Being thus summoned, he 
demands : what manner of men are ye called ? They made 
answer, that they were Franks, devoted to holy poverty, and 
anxious to visit St. Thomas. Then, being questioned con- 
cerning their faith, they replied that they were true Chris- 
tians, and uttered many things with holy fervour regarding 
the faith of Christ. But when Melich let them go, the afore- 
said Yusuf a second and a third time persuaded him to 
arrest and detain them. At length Melich and the Cadi 
and the people of the place were assembled, Pagans and 
idolaters as well as Saracens, and questioned the brethen : 
How can Christ, whom ye call the Virgin's son, be the son 
of God, seeing that God hath not a mate ? Then set they 
forth many instances of divine generation, as from the sun's 
rays, from trees, from germs in the soil ; so that the infidels 
could not resist the Spirit who spake in them. But the 

^ Diu, on the coast of Guzerat, where the old Portuguese war- 
riors afterwards made such a gallant defence against the *' Moors" 
in 1547. 

^ Yusuf. 


Saracens kindled a great fire, and said : Yc say that your 
law is better than the law of Mahomet ; an it be so, go ye 
into the fire, and by miracle prove your words. The 
brethren replied that, for the honour of Christ, that they 
would freely do ; and brother Thomas coming forward 
would first go in, but the Saracens suffered him not, for 
that he seemed older than the others ; then came forward 
the youngest of the brethren, James of Padua, a young 
wrestler for Christ, and incontinently went into the fire, and 
abode in it until it was well nigh spent, rejoicing and 
uttering praise, and without any burning of his hair even, 
or of the cloth of his gown. Now they who stood by shouted 
with a great cry. Verily these be good and holy men ! 

" But the Cadi, willing to deny so glorious a miracle, 
said : It is not as ye think, but his raiment came from the 
land of Aben . . .^ a great friend of God, who when cast 
into the flames in Chaldea, took no hurt; therefore, hath 
this man abode scatheless in the fire. 

" Then stripped they the innocent youth, and all naked 
as he was born was he cast by four men into the fire. But 
he bore the flames without hurt, and went forth from the 
fire unscathed and rejoicing. Then Melich set them free to 
go whither they would. But the Cadi, and the aforesaid 
Yusuf, full of malice, knowing that they had been enter- 
tained in the house of a certain Christian, said to Melich : 
What dost thou? why slayest thou not these Christ-worship- 
ers ? He replied : That 1 find no cause of death in them. 
But they say : If ye let them go, all will believe in Christ, 
and the law of Mahomet will be utterly destroyed. Melich 
again says : What will ye that I should do, seeing that I find 

1 Sic. I suppose it should be Abraham, according to the well- 
known Mussulman tradition ; perhaps called, as Mr. Badger kindly 
suggests, Aben (or Ibn) Azer, the son of Azer, the Mussulman 
name for Terah. 


no cause of death ? But they said: His blood be upon us. 
For it is said that if one cannot go pilgrim to Mecca, let 
him slay a Christian and he shall obtain a full remission of 
sins, as if he had visited Mecca. Wherefore, the night fol- 
lowing, the three men aforesaid, Melich, the Cadi, and 
Yusuf, sent officers who despatched the three brethren, 
Thomas, James, and Demetrius, to the joys of heaven, 
bearing the palm of martyrdom. And after awhile, having 
made brother Peter, who was in another place, present himself 
before them, when he firmly held to the faith of Christ, for 
two days they vexed him with sore afflictions, and on the 
third day, cutting off his head, accomplished his martyrdom. 
But their comrades, the Preachers and the rest, when they 
heard this, wrote to the West, lamenting wofully that they 
had been parted from the company of the holy martyrs, and 
saying that they were devoutly engaged in recovering the 
relics of the martyrs." 

I had desired to add to this preface some notices 
of the Christians of Malabar, embracing the latest 
information; bat my work is cut short by circum- 
stances, and I must content myself with saying some- 
thing, hurriedly put together, as to the identity of 
Columbum^ the seat of the bishop's see. 

It is clear that Columbum is not Colombo in Ceylon, 
though the French editor is wrong in supposing that 
the latter city did not exist in the time of Jordanus, for 
it is mentioned by the modern name in Ibn Batuta's 
travels, only a few years later. Jordanus evidently 
does not speak of Ceylon as one who had been there, 
and whilst treating of greater India, he says dis- 
tinctly, " In istd India, me existente in Columho.fuerunt 
inventi,'' etc. 


The identity of Columbum with Kulam or Quilori, 
on the coast of Malabar (now in Travancore), might 
therefore have been assumed, but for the doubts 
which have been raised by some of the editors of 
Marco Polo as to the position of the Kulam or Coilon 
of Marco and other medieval travellers. 

Mr. Hugh Murray, adopting the view of Count 
Baldello Boni in his edition of Marco Polo, considers 
that the place so-called by those travellers was on 
the east coast of the Peninsula. I have not time to 
seek for Baldello's edition, and do not know his argu- 
ments ; but I conceive that there is enough evidence 
to show that he is wrong. 

The argument on which Murray rests is chiefly the 
position in which Polo introduces his description of 
Coilon, after Maabar, and before Comari ; Maabar 
being with him an extensive region of Coroman- 
del, and Comari doubtless the country about Cape 
Comorin. But,omitting detailed discussion of the value 
of this argument, which would involve a consideration 
of all the other difficulties in reducing to geographical 
order Polo's notices of the kingdoms on the coast of 
India, his description of Coilon as a great port for 
pepper and brazil-wood, is suj^^cient to identify it as 
on the coast of Malabar. The existence of places 
called Coulan on the east coast in the maps of 
D'Anville, Pennel, and Milburn, is of little moment, 
for an inspection of the " Atlas of India" will show 
scores of places so-called on both sides of Cape 
Comorin, the word signifying, in the Tamul tongue, 
' an irrigation tank, formed by damming up natural 


hollows.' Indeed, though I have found no trace of 
any well-known port on the east coast so-called, there 
were at least four ports of the name on the west 
coast frequented by foreign vessels, viz., Cote Colam, 
north of Cananore ; Colam, called Pandarani, north 
of Calicut ; Cai-Colam, or Kaincolam,^ between 
Cochin and the chief place of the name ; Coulam, 
or Quilon, the Columbum of oar author. 

We know that Kulam, on the coast of Malabar, 
was founded in the ninth century, and that its founda- 
tion formed an era from which dates were reckoned 
in Malabar.^ In that same century we find^ that the 
sailing directions for ships making the China voyage 
from the Persian Gulf, were to go straight from 

^ In Keith Johnstone's new and beautiful atlas Quilon is identi- 
fied with Kayan or Kain-Kulam. This, I have no doubt, is quite 
a mistake. The places, though near, are quite distinct, and in the 
beginning of the sixteenth century were under distinct sovereigns. 
I may here notice what I venture, with respect, to think is an error 
in Mr. Major's edition of Conti {India in the Fifteenth Century J, 
Conti, on his first arrival in Malabar, lands at '' Pudefitania," and, 
after describing his visit to Bengal, and his ascent of the Ganges, 
returns to Pudefitania. Mr. Major interprets this in the last place 
Burdivan. But, apart from other arguments, it is evidently in both 
passages the same place, i.e., Pudi-patanam, one of the old forgot- 
ten ports on the coast of Malabar, but mentioned by Barbosa and 
the Geographer in Ramusio. Other names mentioned by Conti are 
in need of examination. Maarazia, the great city on the Ganges 
which he visits, is certainly not Muttra, as the editor has it, but 
Benares. The Braminical name, Barandsi, is near enough to 

^ Wilson's preface to Mackenzie's Collections, p. xcviii. 

3 See the relations of Mahomedan voyagers published by Renau- 
dot, and again by Reinaud. 


Maskat to Kulam 3IaU, a place evidently, both from 
name and fact, on the coast of Malabar. Here there 
was a custom-house, where ships from China paid 
their dues. 

The narrative of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela is 
very hazy. He calls Chulan only seven days from 
El-Cathif (which is a port on the west coast of the 
Persian Gulf), " and on the confines of the country 
of the Sun-worshippers." However, his description 
of the pepper-gardens adjoining the city, the black 
Jews, etc., identify it with one of the Kulam s on the 
Malabar coast, and doubtless with Quilon, which was 
the chief of them. 

Then comes Polo's notice of Coilon already alluded 
to, followed by our author's mention of it, and resi- 
dence there. 

It is probable that the Polumbrum or Polembum 
of his contemporaries Odoricus and Mandevill, are 
corrupt readings of the name of Kulam or Columbum. 
The former describes this place as at the head of the 
pepper forest towards the south, and as abounding in 
all sorts of merchandize ; Mandevill adding, " thither 
go merchants often from Venice to buy pepper and 

Ibn Batuta, only half a century after Polo, is quite 
clear in his description of Kaulam, as the seat of an 
infidel king, the last city on the Malabar coast, and 
frequented by many Mahomedan merchants. He 
also says that Kaulam, Calicut, and Hili were the 
only ports entered by the ships of China. 

So also Conti, early in the fifteenth century, on his 


return from the Eastern Archipelago, departing from 
Champa (Cambodia), doubtless in one of those same 
ships of China, after a month's voyage arrives at 
Cohen, a noble city, three days from Cochin, and 
" situated in the province called Melibaria." 

Coming down to later times, Barbosa, in the first 
years of the sixteenth century, speaks of Coulon still 
as the great pepper port, the seat of one of the three 
(chief) kings of Malabar, and where lived many 
Moors, Gentiles, and Christians, who were great mer- 
chants, and had many ships trading to Coromandel, 
Ceylon, Bengal, Pegu, Malacca, Sumatra, etc. 

Here, however, at last, we find something to 
justify Marco Polo in regard to the position in which 
he introduces the kingdom of Coilon. For, after 
speaking of Coulam on the Malabar coast, Barbosa 
goes forward to Cape Comorin, where he says the 
country of Malabar indeed terminates, but the "afore- 
said kingdom of Coulam" still goes on and comes to 
an end at the city of Cail, where the King of Coulam 
made his continual residence. So also the " Sum- 
mary of kingdoms," etc., in Ramusio, describes , the 
kingdom of Colam as extending on both sides of Cape 

It is intelligible, therefore, that Marco, coming 
upon territory belonging to the kingdom of Coilon, 
before reaching Cape Comorin, should proceed to 
speak of the city of that name, though it lay upon 
the western coast. Bat there is in this no ground 
for asserting, as Mr. Murray does, that " the place of 
that name described by Marco and other early Eu- 


ropeans lay to the east of that great promontory." 
We have seen that a regular catena of authorities, 
from the ninth to the sixteenth century, concurs in 
representing Coulam, Kulam, Coloen, Coilon ( ^m7o?z), 
on the coast of Malabar, as the great entrepot of 
trade with east and west, and there can be no reason- 
able doubt that this is the Columbum which was the 
seat of our author's mission. 

The occasional quotations given in the notes will 
indicate the quality of the author's Latin. The 
French editor is unwilling to believe that episcopal 
Latinity could be so bad, and suggests that his ver- 
nacular was Latinized by some humbler scribe, and 
probably extracted from a larger work. In support 
of this, he adduces the abrupt commencement, and 
the " but" with which he plunges in — " Inter Siciliam 
aiUem et Calabriam." But he gives a fac-simile of 
the beginning of the MS., and the words seem to me 
(all inexpert I confess) almost certainly to be " Inter 
Siciliam atque Calabriam," so that this argument is 

One must notice the frequent extraordinary coin- 
cidences of statement, and almost of expression, 
between this and other travellers of the same age, 
especially M. Polo. At first one would think that 
Jordanus had Polo's book. But he certainly had not 
Ibn Batuta's, and the coincidences with him are 
sometimes almost as striking. Had those ancient 
worthies, then, a Murray from whom they pilfered 
experiences, as modern travellers do '? I think they 
had ; but their Murray lay in the traditional yarns of 


the Arab sailors with whom they voyaged, some of 
which seem to have been handed down steadily from 
the time of Ptolemy — peradventure of Herodotus^ — 
almost to our own day. 

And so I commend the simple and zealous Jor- 
danus to kindly entertainment. 

^ See end of note to ch. v. para. 16. 
London, June 27th, 1863. 

NoTA Bene. The English edition of Marco Polo, so often re- 
ferred to in my notes, is Mr. Hugh Murray's fourth edition ; Edin- 
burgh, Oliver and Boyd, {no date ; more shame to Oliver and Boyd). 

In my absence on the continent my friend Mr. Badger has un- 
dertaken the correction of the press. The revise sheets have been 
sent to me, but in the absence of my manuscript and references I 
fear some errors may still inevitably escape correction. 

The numbers to chapters and paragraphs have been attached 
by me, H. Y. 







1. Between Sicily and Calabria there is a marvel in the 
sea. This is it : on one side the sea runneth with an upward 
current, and on the other side cometh down towards the 
island with a swifter stream than any river ; and so in the 
middle is caused a wondrous eddy, sucking down ships that 
hap to fall in with it, whatever be their bigness. And 'tis 
said that in the bottom of the sea there is a horrid kind of a 
whirlpool, from which the water cometh forth so wondrous 
dark that even the fishes nowhere dare to come near it.^ 

1 Admiral Smyth says that the currents in the Faro are so numerous 
and varied, that it is difficult to ascertain anything precise about them. 
In settled seasons a central stream runs north and south, at the rate of 
two to five miles an hour. On each shore there is a refluo, or counter-set, 
often forming eddies to the central current. When the main current runs 
to the north it is called Bema montante, or flood ; when it runs south, Bema 
scendente, or ebb ; and this has obtained, perhaps, even from the days of 
Eratosthenes. He considers that the special danger from the Faro currents 



2. In Greece I neither saw nor heard of aught worth tell- 
ing, unless it be that between the island of Negropont and 
the mainland the sea ebbeth and floweth sometimes thrice, 
sometimes four times, sometimes oftener, like a rapid river ; 
and that is a marvel to be sure !^ 

3. I was at Thebes, where there be so many earthquakes 
that nobody could believe it who had not felt them ; for it 
will happen five, or six, or seven times in the twenty-four 

is insignificant. Tliere are dangerous squalls from the ravines or river- 
beds on the high Calabrian coast. 

He admits some little more of reality in the celebrated vortex of 
Charybdis, which must have been formidable to the undecked vessels of 
the ancients; for in the present day small craft are sometimes endangered, 
and he has seen even a seventy -four whuied round on its surface. The "Ga- 
lofaro" appears to be an agitated water of from seventy to ninety fathoms 
in depth, circling in quick eddies, but rather an incessant undulation 
than a whirlpool, and the cases are only extreme when any vertiginous 
ripples threaten danger to laden boats. " It is owing probably to the 
meeting of the harbour and lateral currents with the main one, the latter 
])eing forced over in this direction by the opposite point of Pezzo. This 
agrees in some measure with the relation of Thucydides, who calls it a 
violent reciprocation of the Tyrrhene and Sicilian seas, and he is the only 
writer of remote antiquity I remember to have read who has assigned this 
danger its true situation, and not exaggerated its effects." (Abridged from 
Smyth's Mediterranean, pp. 180-1). Our author seems to mix up the two 
phenomena in his exaggerated account. The upward and downward cur- 
rent suggest that he had heard the local terms quoted by Admiral Smyth. 

' " The breadth of the Euripus is diminished by a rock in mid-channel, 
on which a fort is built, dividing it into two channels : that towards the 
main, though rather the broader, is only practicable for small boats, as 
there is not more than three feet water at any time. Between the rock 
and the walls of Egripos is a distance of 33 feet, and the least depth at 
the highest water is 7 feet. It is here that the extraordinary tides take 
place for which the Euripus was formerly so noted ; at times the water 
runs as much as eight miles an hour, with a fall under the bridge of 1| 
foot ; but what is most singular is, that vessels lying 150 yards from the 
l^ridge are not the least affected by this rapid. It remains but a short 
time in a quiescent state, changing its dii-ection in a few minutes, and 
almost immediately resuming its velocity, which is generally fr-om four to 
five miles an hour either way, its greatest rapidity being, however, always 
to the southward. The results of thi*ec months' observation, in which 
the above phenomena were noted, afforded no sufficient data for reducing 
them to any regularity." — Penny Cyclop., Article Euba;a. See also Leake 
(Tr. in Northern Greece, ii. p. 257), who quotes Wheler and Spon. 


hours, many a time and oft, that the strongest houses and 
walls shall be thrown down by earthquakes.^ 



1. In Armenia the Greater I saw one great marvel. This 
is it : a mountain of excessive height and immense extent, 
on which Noah's ark is said to have rested. This mountain 
is never without snow, and seldom or never without clouds, 
which rarely rise higher than three parts up. The mountain 
is inaccessible, and there never has been anybody who could 
get farther than the edge of the snow.^ And (marvellous 
indeed !) even the beasts chased by the huntsmen, when they 
come to the snow, will liefer turn, will liefer yield them into 
the huntsmen's hands, than go farther up that mountain. 

• Greece generally is subject to earthquakes, but I cannot find evidence 
that Thebes is particularly so. 

2 The first ascent of Ararat is well known to have been made by Profes- 
sor Parrot, of Dorpat, 9th October, 1829, whose account of his journey has 
been translated by Mr. Cooley. 

" From the summit downwards, for nearly two-thirds of a mile perpen- 
dicular, or nearly three miles in an oblique direction, it is covered with a 
crown of eternal snow and ice" (Parrofs Journeij, p. 133). As to the 
clouds, the same author remarks \7ith regard to a drawing of Arai'at : 
"The belt of clouds about the mountain is characteristic" (p. 137). And 
Smith and Dwight (Researches in Armenia, p. 266) say that they were pre- 
vented by clouds fi-om seeing it for three weeks. It is beHeved in the 
country that the Ark still exists on the mountain, access to which has 
been forbidden by Divine decree since Noah's time. A holy monk called 
Jacob resolved to convince himself by inspection. But in his ascent of 
the mountain he three times was overtaken by sleei?, and each time found 
that he had unconsciously lost the ground that he had gained when awake. 
At last an angel came to him when again asleep, and told him that his 
zeal was fraitless, but was to be rewarded by a fragment of the wood of 
the Ark, a sacred relic stiU preserved in the Cathedral of Echmiazin. 
(Parrot, and Smith and Bxoight) ; see also the naiTative of Gu%lla\ime de 
Ruhruk (K-ubruquis), in Rec. de Voyages, iv. p. 387. 


This mountain hath a compass of more than three days 
journey for a man on horseback going without halt. There 
be serpents of a great size, which swallow hares alive and 
whole, as I heard from a certain trustworthy gentleman who 
saw the fact, and shot an arrow at a serpent with a hare in 
his mouth, but scathed it not.^ In a certain part of the 
mountain is a dwelling which Noah is said to have built on 
leaving the ark ; and there, too, is said to be that original 
vine which Noah planted, and whereby he got drunk ; and 
it giveth such huge branches of grapes as you would scarce 
believe. This I heard from a certain Catholic archbishop of 
ours, a great man and a powerful, and trustworthy to boot, 
the lord of that land ; and, indeed, I believe I have been at 
the place myself, but it was in the winter season.^ 

2. This country of Armenia the Greater is very extensive, 
and there three of the apostles suffered martyrdom : Bartho- 
lomew, Simon, and Judas. I saw a prison in which the two 
latter apostles were kept ; and likewise springs of water 
which they produced from the living rock, smiting it with 

1 Stories of serpents seem to be rife in Armenia. On the Araxes, south 
of Nakhchevan (see note below), is a mountain called the Serpent Moun- 
tain, where serpents are said to collect in such numbers at certain times, 
that no man or beast dare approach. (See Haxthausen's Transcaucasia, 
pp. 144, 181, 353, etc.) 

2 The name of the province and town of Nakhchevan, east of Ararat, 
signifies " first place of descent, or of lodging." The antiquity of the tra- 
dition is proved by the fact, that Josephus affirms that the Armenians 
call the place where the Ark rested " the place of descent ;" whilst Ptolemy 
supplies the name of Naxuana. (Smith and Dwight, p. 255.) 

The place alluded to by Jordanus appears to be Ai'guri, the only village 
upon Ararat. Here Noah is said to have built his altar on the exact spot 
now occupied by the church, and it is of the vineyards of Arguri that the 
Scripture is believed to speak when it is said that " Noah began to be an 
husbandman, and planted a vineyard." The church is of unascertained 
but remote date ; and the name of the place signifies (Argh-urri) " He 
planted the vine." {Parrot, p. 122.) At Nakhchevan " the grapes were 
almost unequalled in excellence, and seemed to deserve the honoui- of 
growing on the spot." (Smith and Dwight, p. 256.) Arguri was buried 
by an earthquake, accompanied by volcanic indications, July 2nd, 1840. 
(Smith's Diet, of the Bible, Art. Ararat.) 


a rod VIII times, or X times, or XVII times (anyhow 
there be just as many springs as there were blows struck) ; 
and hard by there was a church built, beauteous and of 
wonderful bigness.^ 

3. In this same Armenia the Greater a certain glorious 
virgin suffered martyrdom, the daughter of a king, and Seal a 
by name.- And there, too, was cast into a well, with a lion 
and a dragon, St. Gregory, who converted Armenia to the 
Catholic faith, as well as its king Tertal,^ in the time of 
St. Sylvester and the Emperor Constantino.^ In this Arme- 
nia, too, was slain the blessed martyr Jacobus. 

4. This province is inhabited chiefly by schismatic Arme- 
nians, but the Preaching and Minor friars have converted a 
good four thousand of them, and more. For one archbishop, 
a great man, called the Lord Zachary, was converted with 
his whole people ; and we trust in the Lord that in a short 

1 The Armenian belief is, that Thaddeus, one of the Seventy, was, after 
the Ascension, sent by St, Thomas, according to commands given him by 
the Lord, to Abgarus of Edessa, who had written the celebrated letter. 
Thaddeus, and Bartholomew who followed him, were successively put to 
death by Sanatruk, the heathen nephew of Abgarus. Jude also came to 
preach in Armenia, and was put to death in Ormi (Urumia). The mission 
of Simon I do not find mentioned, but Chardin states that his body was 
said to be preserved in one of the chui*ches. (See AvdalVs Tr. of Chamich's 
Hist, of Armenia. Calcutta, 1827, pp. 107-111, and Smith and Dwight.) 

2 The virgin must be Bhipsime, said to have been of the house of Clau- 
dius Caesar, who, with Kayane and thirty -seven other holy virgins, were 
put to death in the time of Dioclesian. There are churches dedicated to 
R. and K. at Echmiazin. (Smith and Dwight.) 

3 Tertal is Tu-idates, in Armenian Dertad=Theodosius. (Smith and 

■» St. Grregory, called The Illuminator, born a.d. 257, consecrated Ai-ch- 
bishop of Armenia 302. He is said to have revived (probably introduced) 
Chi'istianity in Armenia, and, after suffering persecution at the hands of 
King Tiridates, converted him and his whole people. The place alluded 
to by Jordanus is at the convent of Khor-virab (" Deep pit"), on the 
Araxes, under Ararat. Here Gregory is believed to have been confined in 
a cave with serpents, and in the endui-ance of manifold torments, for four- 
teen years. (Smith and Dwight, -p. 273. See also Chardin, -p. 251. Curzon's 
Armenia has a concise account of the Ai-menian church.) 


time the whole residue shall be converted also, if only the 
good friars go on so.^ 

5. There are many good and great Armenian princes. 
Christians ; but the Persian emperor hath the paramount 

6. In this Armenia there is a Dead Sea, very bitter to the 
taste, where they say there be no fish at all, and which can- 
not be sailed upon by reason of the stench ; and it has an 
island where are buried many ancient emperors and kings 
of the Persians, with an infinity of treasure ; but nobody is 
allowed to go there, or, if allowed, they dare not search for 
the treasure.^ 

7. This Armenia extendeth in length from Sebast to the 
Plain of Mogan and the Caspian Mountains ; and in breadth 
from the Barcarian Mountains to Tabriz,^ which is a good 
twenty-three days' journey, the length being more than forty 

1 " The ancient and extensive Dominican mission, wMcli once had its 
seat in this province, (Nakhchevan) is now no more. It was commenced 
about 1320 by an Italian papal monk of the Dominican order. Such suc- 
cess attended it that soon nearly thirty Armenian villages embraced the 
faith of Eome, and acknowledged subjection to a papal bishop, who after 
being consecrated at Rome resided in the village of Aburan, with the title 
of Archbishop of Nakhchevan." (Smith and Dwight, p. 257.) 

2 At this time a Tartar successor of Hulaku. 

3 This Dead Sea is doubtless the Lake of Urumia, the waters of which 
are Salter than sea water. It appears to be about ninety miles in length 
from north to south. There are no fish in it. It contains several islands, 
or peninsulas which are occasionally islands, two of which have been used 
as fortresses. In one of these Hulaku the Tartar conqueror of Baghdad 
was said to have stored his treasures. Another is said to be "as old 
as the days of Zoroaster," who is believed to have been born in the vicinity. 
I do not find tombs mentioned. (Penny Cyc. in v. Azerbijan, also Mon- 
teith in Jour. Geog. Soc. iii. 55, and Smith and Dwight, 348.) 

•* " Thaurisium." 

^ Sebast is doubtless Sivas, called by Marco Polo Sebastos, anciently 
Sebasteia (Smith's Diet, of Gr. and Bom. Geo.) south of Tokat, and giving 
name to a pachalik. The Barcarian mountains appear as Barchal Dagh 
running parallel to the Black Sea between Trebizond and Kars. (Stieler's 
Hand-Atlas, 43a.) Mogan is Orogan in the original, but, as we shall see 
below, this is an error of transcription. The Plain of Mogan is the great 


8. There is a certain lake, at the foot of the aforesaid 
great mountain, where ten thousand martyrs were mar- 
tyred, and in their martyrdom happened all the same tokens 
as in the Passion of Christ, for that they all were crucified 
for Christ.^ And that part of the mountain is called Ararat ; 
and there was a city there called Semur, exceeding great, 
which was destroyed by the Tartars.^ I have been over all 
that country, — almost. 

9. But I saw not anything else, in this Armenia the 
greater, worth telling as a marvel. 



1. In Persia, however, I saw a very marvellous thing : to 
wit, that in Tabriz, which is a very great city, containing as 
many as two hundred thousand houses,^ dew never falls 

plain extending fit'om the eastern foot of Caucasus along the Caspian, and 
stretching to the south of the Cyrus and Araxes. Here Pompey's career 
eastward is said to have been arrested by the venomous serpents with 
which the long grass of the plain is infested. The dread of these 
serpents still exists. " Their hissing is heard from afar, and they seem to 
rise from the grass Kke fish from the sea", Kinneir was told. Here the 
camp of Heraclius was pitched, as was that of the Tartar hosts for many 
months dui'ing theii' invasion of Ai'menia in the thirteenth century, and 
that of Nadii* Shah when he placed the crown upon his head. (Macd. 
Kinneir' s Mem. of Persia, 153 ; Avdall's Hist, of Armenia.) 

1 The Lake appears to be Gokchai or Sevan, north-east of Erivan. 
There is a small island with a monastery upon it. There are many tradi- 
tions attached to the monasteries in this vicinity, but I cannot find this 

2 Perhaps Erivan, but I cannot trace the name. 

3 Sii' John Chardin (356) says he may " tnily reck'n" the population of 
Tauris to be 550,000 persons, and that several in the city would have it 
to be double that number ! yet h,e had said just before that it contained 
15,000 houses and 15,000 shops, so that 150,000 souls would be a liberal 
estimate. It appears now to contain from 30,000 to 50,000. Kinneii- calls 
it one of the most wretched cities in Persia. Such estimates of city popu- 


from heaven ; nor doth it rain in summer as in most parts it 
doth, but they water artificially everything that is grown for 
man's food.^ There also, or thereabouts, on a kind of wil- 
lows, are found certain little worms, which emit a liquid 
which congeals upon the leaves of the tree, and also drops 
upon the ground, white like wax ; and that excretion is 
sweeter than honey and the honeycomb." 

2. There we have a fine-enough church, and about a thou- 
sand of the schismatics converted to our faith, and about as 

lation are common enough still. Many books and many gentlemen in 
India wiU still tell us that Benares contains half a million, and that 
Lucknow before 1857 contained 700,000; the fact being, as regards 
Benares, that by census and including its suburbs it contains 171,668 ; 
whilst the estimate for Lucknow was probably five or six times the truth. 
I suspect the usual estimate of 900,000 in the city of Madras to be of equal 

1 At Tabriz " dew is entirely unknown, and not more than two or three 
showers fall between March and December. The plain around is very 
fertile where irrigated." (Penny Cyc.) 

2 The only manna I have known in India was exuded by a tamarisk ; 
but it appears to be produced on various shrubs in Persia and the adjoin- 
ing countries, camelthorns, tamarisks, and others. And one kind called 
Bed-MsM is produced on a species of willow. (Bed signifies a willow.) 
Some kinds- of manna are used as sugar. (See Pen. Cyc. in v. Manna.) 
This authority does not seem to recognize the agency of any insect in its 
production. But Macdonald Kinneir (in his Memoir of the Persian Empire, 
p. 329) has the following note. " Manna is exported from Moosh, on the 
Euphi-ates [west of Lake Van] in considerable quantities. It is termed 
guz by the Persians, and found in great quantities in Louristan, and in 
the district of Khonsar in Irak. It is taken from a small shrub, in ap- 
pearance not unlike a funnel, about four feet in height and three in 
diameter at the top. The guz is said to be produced by small insects, 
which are seen to move in vast numbers under the small and narrow leaves 
of the shrub. — These were always in motion, and continued to crawl 
between the bark and the leaves. The guz is collected during the months 
of August and September in the following manner. A vessel of an oval 
form being placed under the bush as a receptacle, the leaves are beat 
every third day with a crooked stick covered with leather. The manna 
when fijTst gathered has the tenacity and appearance of gum, but, when 
exposed to the heat of 90° of Fahi-enheit's thermometer, it dissolves into 
a liquid resembling honey. When mixed with sweetmeat its tenacity 
resists the application of the knife, but when suddenly struck it shivers 
into pieces." 


many also in Ur of the Chaldees, where Abraham was born, 
which is a very opulent city, distant about two days from 


3. Likewise also at Sultania we have five hundred, or 
five hundred and fifty. This is eight days' distant from 
Tabriz, and we have a very fine church there. 

4. In this country of Persia are certain animals called 
onagri, which are like little asses, but swifter in speed than 

our horses." 

5. This Persia is inhabited by Saracens and Saracenized 
Tartars, and by schismatic Christians of divers sects, such as 
Nestorians, Jacobites, Greeks, Georgians, Armenians, and 
by a few Jews. Persia hath abundance of silk, and also of 
ultramarine,^ but they wot not how to prepare it. They 
have likewise exceeding much gold in the rivers, but they 
wot not how to extract it, nor be they worthy to do so. 

6. Persia extendeth about V^ days' journey in length, 
and as much in breadth. The people of this realm live all 
too uncleanly, for they sit upon the ground, and eke eat 
upon the same, putting mess and meats^ in a trencher for 

1 There is a town called in the maps Ahar, about fifty mUes north-east 
of Tabriz, but I cannot find that this was ever considered to be Ur of the 
Chaldees. Urfa, which is generally supposed to be Ur, is in quite another 
region more than four hundred mHes from Tabriz. 

2 Wild asses ai^e found in the diy regions from the frontiers of Syi'ia to 
the Eunn of Cutch, and north to 48° lat. Fei-rier mentions herds of hun- 
dreds between Mushid and Herat, and on the banks of the Khashi-ood, 
south of Herat. " They are fleet as deer," he says. Theii' flesh is more 
dehcate than Persian beef, and the Afghans consider it a gi-eat dehcacy, 
as did the old Eoman epiciu-es. This species, as I leai-n from a note 
Avith which Ml-. Moore, of the India Museum, has kindly favom-ed me, is 
Asinus Onager, the Kulan or Ghor-lhar of the Persians. That of S^ia 
and Northern Ai-abia is the Asinus Hemippus, the Hemionus ot the 
ancients; whHst the Kyang or Jiggetai (Equus Hemionus of PaUas, E. 
Polyodon of Hodgson) inhabits Tibet and thence northward to southern 
Siberia; and the true wHd ass {E. asinus) is indigenous to north-eastern 
Africa, and perhaps to south Ai-abia and the island of Socotra. 

3 '< Lapis azurHr hod. lapis lazuli. Quantities of this are found m 
Badakshan. {Burnes, Bokhara, ii. 205. 8vo ed.) 

4 Sic. Probably l, or lv is intended. ' " Ferculum ct carnem. 


three, four, or five persons together. They eat not on a 
table-cloth/ but on a round sheet of leather, or on a low 
table of wood or brass, with three legs. And so six, seven, 
or eight persons eat out of one dish, and that with their 
hands and fingers ; big and little, male and female, all eat 
after this fashion. And after they have eaten, or even whilst 
in the middle of their eating, they lick their fingers with 
tongue and lips, and wipe them on their sleeves,^ and after- 
wards, if any grease still remains upon their hands, they 
wipe them on their shoes. And thus do the folk over all 
those countries, including Western and Eastern Tartary, 
except the Hindus, who eat decently enough, though they 
too eat with their hands.^ 

7. In Persia are some springs, from which flows a kind of 
pitch, which is called kic^ fpix, dico, sen Pegua), with 
which they smear the skins in which wine is carried and 

8. Between this country of Persia and India the Less is a 
certain region where manna falls in a very great quantity, 
white as snow, sweeter than all other sweet things, de- 
licious, and of an admirable and incredible efficacy. There 
are also sandhills in great numbers, and very destructive to 
men ; for when the wind blows, the sand flows down just 
like water from a tank.^ These countries aforesaid, to wit, 

1 "Tohalia" 

2 The Afghans exceed the practices here graphically described ; for they, 
I believe, often expectorate in the hairy sleeve of the j^ostin, which in 
winter they wear after the fashion of Brian O'Linn, "with the leather side 
out and the woolly side in." Scott Waring {Tour to Shiraz, p. 103) notices 
the dirty table habits of the Persians. 

3 The friar's remarks seem to shew that forks were common in Europe 
earlier than is generally represented to be the case. 

4 No doubt it should be Iclr, which is bituminous pitch in Persian. 
What the parenthesis means I cannot make out. Pegua can scarcely be a 
reference to the petroleum of Pegu at this early date ? 

^ Bui-nes describes the vast fields of soft sand, formed into ridges, 
between Bokhara and the Oxus. Theii- uniformity is remarkable, all 
having the shape of a horse-shoe, convex towards the north, from which 


Persia, Armenia Major, Chaldcia, as well as Cappadocia and 
Asia Minor and Greece, abound in good fruits, meats, and 
other things, like our own country ; but their lands are not 
so populous,— no, not a tithe,— except Greece. 



1. In the entrance to India the Less are [date] palms, 
giving a very great quantity of the sweetest fruit ; but further 
on in India they are not found.^ 

the prevailing wind blows. On this side they slope, inside they are pre- 
cipitous The height is from fifteen to twenty feet. " The pai-ticles ot 
sand, moving fi'om one mound to another, wheehng in the eddy or interior 
of the semickcle, and having now and then, particularly under the rays 
of the sun, much the look of water, an appearance, I imagine, which has 
given rise to the opinion of moving sands in the desert." {Bokhara, ii. 

^^Our author may possibly have heard of the Beg-rawdn, or "flowing 
sand " of the Koh Daman, near IstaHf. (See Wood's Oxus, p. 181.) 

y It may be gathered from what foUows, that Lesser India embraces 
Sindh and probably Meki-an, and IncUa along the coast as far as some 
point immediately north of Malabar. Greater India extends fr-om Malabar 
very indefinitely to the eastward, for he makes it include Champa (Cam- 
bodia). India Tertia is the east of Africa. 

According to the old Portuguese geographer, whose " Summaay ot 
Kingdoms," etc., is given by Ramusio, First India (see text, next page), 
ends at Mangalore, Second India at the Ganges. 

Marco Polo reverses the titles given by oui- author. He makes Greater 
India extend from Maabai' (south part of the Coromandel coast) to Kes- 
macoran (Kidj-mekran or Mekran), whilst Lesser IncUa stretches fr'om the 
Coromandel to Champa. Abyssinia, Mai-co caUs Middle India. (See Mur- 
ray's Polo, pt. ii. ch. xxxvi.) Benjamin of Tudela speaks of " Middle India 
which is caUed Aden." Conti says aU India is divided into thi-ee parts, 
the fii'st extending from Persia (Ormus ?) to the Indus, the second fr-om 
the Indus to the Ganges, the thii'd aU beyond. 

It is worth noting that Pliny says it was disputed whether Gedi-osia 
(Mekran), etc., belonged to India or to Ariana. (vi. p. 23.) 

2 I believe this is substantiaUy correct. Sindh is the only province m 
India that produces edible dates. A date-palm is found aU over India, 
but the fruit is worthless. 


2. In this lesser India are many things worthy to be noted 
with wonder ; for there are no springs, no rivers, no ponds ; 
nor does it ever rain, except during three months, viz., 
between the middle of May and the middle of August ; and 
(wonderful !) notwithstanding this, the soil is most kindly 
and fertile, and during the nine months of the year in which 
it does not rain^ so much dew is found every day upon the 
ground that it is not dried up by the sun's rays till the middle 
of the third hour of the day.^ 

S. Here be many and boundless marvels ; and in this First 
India beginneth, as it were, another world ; for the men and 
women be all black, and they have for covering nothing but 
a strip of cotton tied round the loins, and the end of it flung 
over the naked back. Wheaten bread is there not eaten by 
the natives, although wheat they have in plenty ; but rice is 
eaten with its seasoning,^ only boiled in water. And they 
have milk and butter and oil, which they often eat uncooked. 
In this India there be no horses, nor mules, nor camels, nor 
elephants ; but only kine, with which they do all their doings 
that they have to do, whether it be riding, or carrying, or 
field labour. The asses are few in number and very sm.all, 
and not much worth.^ 

4. The days and nights do not vary there more than by 
two hours at the most. 

' Till half -past nine o'clock. " Quod usque ad mediant tertiam per 
soils radios ulldtenus possit desiccari." " The dews" in Lower Sindh, 
says Burnes, " are very heavy and dangerous." (iii. p- 254.) The fertility 
of the country is, however, confined to the tracts inundated or irrigated 
from the Indus and its branches. As to the absence of rain. Dr. Lord 
says, that the rainfall registered by Lt. Wood during one year at Hyder- 
abad was only 2*55 inches, whilst at Larkhana, further north, a shower of 
rain which fell after the arrival of Burnes's party was universally ascribed 
to the good fortune of the Firingis, as for three years, the natives said, 
rain had scarcely been known." (Reports and Papers on Sindh, etc. — Cal- 
cutta, 1839, p. 61.) 

" " Risis autem comeditur atque sagina in aqud tantummodo coda" 
•^ He is wrong about the non-existence of horses and camels in what 
he calls India the Less. 


5. There be always fruits and flowers there, divers trees, 
and fruits of divers kinds; for (example) there are some trees 
which bear very big fruit, called Chaqui ; and the fruit is of 
such size that one is enough for five persons.^ 

^ Five persons to eat, that is. But an English gentleman^ who is a 
coffee planter in the middle of Java, told me that he once cut a jack (the 
fruit intended by the bishop), which it took three men to carry. That they 
grow in Ceylon to 50 lbs. weight at least is testified by Cordiner and Sii 
Emerson Tennent. The former says they grow there to two feet in length, 
and to the same circumference, which is bigger than I ever saw them in 
Bengal. The manner of growing is accurately described in the next 
paragraph of the text. 

The jack is, no doubt, the Indian fruit described by Pliny, Book xii. 
ch. 12, as putting forth its fruit from the bark, and as being remarkable 
for the sweetness of its juice, a single one containing enough to satisfy 
four persons. The name of the tree, he says, is 'pala, and of the fruit 
Ariena. The former is possibly the Tamul name, Pila, which is also one of 
the Malabar names. If, however, Pliny derived the whole of his informa- 
tion on this fruit, as he appears to derive part of it, fr-om the historians of 
the Alexandrian invasion, the name may be merely the Sanskrit jphala, a 
frniit, and it would be a comical illustration of the persistency of Indian 
habits of mind. For a stranger in India asking the question, " What is 
that ?" would almost certainly at this day receive for reply, " P'hal hai, 
khuddwand !" " It is b, fruit, my lord !" 

The name jack, which we give to the tree and its fruits, is one of that 
large class of words which are neither English nor Hindustani, but Anglo- 
Indian, and the origin of which is often very difficult to trace. Drury 
gives Pilavoo as the Malayalim name, but I find that Rheede (Hortus 
Malabaricus, vol. iii.) gives also Tsjaka ; and Linschoten, too, says that 
the jack is in Malabar called laca : so here we have doubtless the original. 

I was long puzzled by the two species of our author, Chaqui and Bloqui. 
There are, indeed, two weU-known species of artocarpus giving fruits which 
are both edible, and have a strong external resemblance, the jack and the 
breadfr'uit. But the breadfruit is not as big, not as sweet, and does not 
bear its fruit fr'om the ti'unk and roots, but from twigs. Nor is it grown 
in Malabar, though sometimes, Ainslie says (Materia Medica), imported 
from Ceylon for sale. No modern authors that I can find make a clear 
distinction of kinds of jack. But, on referring back, we find that all the 
old authors, who really seem to have gone into these practical matters with 
more freshness and sympathy in native tastes, do so. Thus Linschoten 
says, " There are two sorts of them : the best are caUed Girasal, and the 
common or least esteemed Chambasal, though in fashion and trees there is 
no difference, save that the Girasals have a sweeter taste ;" and his old 
commentator, "the leai-ned Doctor Paludanus, of Enckhuysen," says, also, 
there are " two sorts, and the best is called Barca, the other Papa, which 
is not so good, and yet in handling is soft like the other." Nearly three 


6. There is another tree which has fruit like that just 
named, and it is called Bloqui, quite as big and as sweet, but 
not of the same species. These fruits never grow upon the 
twigs, for these are not able to bear their weight, but only 
from the main branches, and even from the trunk of the tree 
itself, down to the very roots. 

7. There is another tree which has fruit like a plum, but 
a very big one, which is called Aniba. This is a fruit so 
sweet and delicious as it is impossible to utter in words. ^ 

8. There be many other fruit trees of divers kinds, which 
it would be tedious to describe in detail. 

9. I will only say this much, that this India, as regards 

hundred years earlier Ibn Batuta had said, that of the fruits of India "are 

those termed Shaki and Barki, the fruit grows out from the bottom of 

the tree, and that which grows nearest to the earth is called the Barki ; 
it is extremely sweet and well-flavoured in taste ; what grows above this 
is called the Shaki," etc. Lastly, we have Kheede, speaking with au- 
thority, " Ceterum arboris hujus ultra triginta numerantur species ratione 
fnictuum distinctse, quae tamen omnes ad duo referentur genera; quorum 
alterius fructus qui carne succulenta, gratissimi, mellinique saporis tur- 
gent, varaka; at alterius, qui carne flaccida, molliori et minus sapida 
referti sunt, Tsjakapa nuncupantur." (iii. p. 19.) Drury, indeed, says, 
" There are several varieties, but what is called the Honeyjack is by far the 
sweetest and best." 

To conclude this long discourse on a short text, it seems certain that the 
Bloqui of our author is the Barki of Ibn Batuta, the Barka of Paludanus, 
the Varaka " meUini saporis" of Eheede, and the Honeyjack of Drury. 
" He that desireth to see more hereof let him reade Lodouicus Bomanus, in 
his fifth Booke and fifteene Chapter of his Nauigatiouns, and Christo- 
pherus a Costa in his Cap. of laca, and Gracia ah Horto, in the second 
Booke and fom-th Chapter," saith the learned Paludanus, — and so say I, 
by all means ! 

1 Amha (Pers.), the Mango. Ibn Batuta writes it 'anhd with an 'ain, 
as appears from Lee's note (p. 104), and the latter translates it 
" grape," which is the meaning of that word I believe in Arabic. Our 
author's just description of the flavour of the mango is applicable, how- 
ever, only to the finer stocks, and seems to show that the " Bombay 
mango" already existed in the thii-teenth century. The mango is com- 
monly believed in Anglo-India to produce boils, which I see was also 
the belief in Linschoten's day. But I agree with his commentator, that, 
at the time when the fruit is ripe, " by reason of the great heate and 
season of the yeare — many doe fall into the forenamcd diseases, although 
they eate none of this fruite," 


fruit and other things, is entirely different from Christendom ; 
except, indeed, that there be lemons there, in some places, 
as sweet as sugar, whilst there be other lemons sour like 
ours.^ There be also pomegranates, but very poor and small. 
There be but few vines, and they make from them no wine, 
but eat the fresh grapes ; albeit there are a number of other 
trees whose sap they collect, and it standeth in place of wine 
to them. 

10. First of these is a certain tree called Nargil;^ which 
tree every month in the year sends out a beautiful frond like 
[that of] a [date] palm-tree, which frond or branch produces 
very large fruit, as big as a man's head. There often grow 
on one such stem thirty of those fruits as big as I have said. 
And both flowers and fruits are produced at the same time, 
beginning with the first month and going up gradually to 
the twelfth ; so that there are flowers and fruit in eleven 
stages of growth to be seen together. A wonder ! and a 
thing which cannot be well understood without being wit- 
nessed.^ From these branches and fruits is drawn a very 
sweet water. The kernel [at flrst] is very tender and pleasant 
to eat ; afterwards it waxeth harder, and a milk is drawn 
from it as good as milk of almonds ; and when the kernel 
waxeth harder still, an oil is made from it of great medicinal 

^ This would seem to imply that the orange was not known in Southern 
Europe in the author's time; though there are such things as sweet lemons. 

2 The Persian name for the coco-nut, and coco-palm. 

•^ So Ibn Batuta — " Of this sort of trees the palm will produce fruit 
twelve times in the year, each month supplying a fi-esh crop : so that you 
will see upon the trees the fruit of some large, of others small, of others 
dry, and of others green. And this is the case always." (See p. 176.) 

The account of the coco-palm, though slightly mythicized, is substan- 
tially correct. In the third year of the pahn's growth the fi-onds begin to 
faU, a new frond appearing at the end of every month. Of these there 
are twenty-eight, more or less, on a ftill-grown tree. On a single tree 
there are about twelve branches, orspadices, of nuts. Most of the young 
fruit falls off, only a few coming to perfection ; but as fr-om ten to fifteen 
nuts on an average are produced on one branch, a single tree may produce 
eighty to one hundi'ed nuts every year. (Drury's Useful Plants of India.) 



virtue. And if any one careth not to have fruit, when the 
fruit-bearing stem is one or two months old he maketh a cut 
in it, and bindeth a pot to this incision; and so the sap, 
which would have been converted into fruit, drops in ; and 
it is white like milk, and sweet like must, and maketh drunk 
like wine, so that the natives do drink it for wine ; and those 
who wish not to drink it so, boil it down to one-third of its 
bulk, and then it becometh thick, like honey ; and 'tis sweet, 
and fit for making preserves, like honey and the honeycomb.^ 
One branch gives one potful in the day and one in the night, 
on the average throughout the year :^ thus five or six pots 
may be found hung upon the same tree at once. With the 
leaves of this tree they cover their houses during the rainy 
season.^ The fruit is that which we call nuts of India; and 
from the rind of that fruit is made the twine with which they 
stitch their boats together in those parts.^ 

11. There is another tree of a difi"erent species, which like 
that gives all the year round a white liquor pleasant to drink, 
which tree is called Tari.^ There is also another, called Bel- 

1 This is tlie jaggeri, or palm-sngai% used extensively in soutliern India, 
It is made by boiling down the fresh toddy over a slow fire. The descrip- 
tion of the extraction of the toddy^ etc., is substantially correct. 

2 " Omni tempore mundi, et hoc sicut venit." 

3 The leaves are employed for thatching houses, especially in Malabar." 
{Brury, p. 152.) 

^ The well known coir. The native practice is to steep the husk in salt 
water for eighteen months or two years before beating out the coir; but 
this has been proved to be injurious. The virtues of coir are strength, 
lightness, elasticity, durability, power of standing sea-water. It is now 
largely used in England for brushes, mats, carpets, etc. {Brury.) 

5 Persian Tdr. Tdcli is the Teloogoo name, according to Drury ; in Hin- 
dustani, tdr and tdl. It is the palmyra (Borassus flahelliformis), a tree 
found from Malabar along the coast to Bengal, and thence down the 
transgangetic coast through Burma and the great islands, and also up the 
Ganges to Cawnpore, a little above which it ceases. The fi-uit is of no 
value. The wood is much used for rafters, etc., and it is better than that 
of any other Indian palm ; but the tree is chiefly used for the derivation of 
the liquor to which, as taken from this and other palms, we give the 
slightly corruj»ted name of toddy, a name which in Scotland has received 
a new application. It is the tree from which palm-sugar is most generally 


luri, giving a liquor of the same kind, but better.^ There be 
also many other trees, and wonderful ones ; among which is 
one which sendeth forth roots from high up, which gradually 
grow down to the ground and enter it, and then wax into 
trunks like the main trunk, forming as it were an arch ; and 
by this kind of multiplication one tree will have at once as 
many as twenty or thirty trunks beside one another, and all 
connected together. 'Tis marvellous ! And truly this which 
I have seen with mine eyes, 'tis hard to utter with my tongue. 
The fruit of this tree is not useful, but poisonous and deadly.^ 

made. The leaves are used for making fans (tlie typical fan being evi- 
dently a copy of this leaf), for writing on, and in some places for thatch- 
ing, etc. 

^ Belluri I conceive to be the Caryota urens, which, according to Eheede 
Hortus Malabar., i.), is called by the Brahmans in Malabar lirala. Most 
of our author's names seem to be Persian in form ; but there is probably 
no Persian name for this palm. Eichardson, however, has "harhal, name 
of a tree and its fruit." This tree yields more toddy than any other palm, 
as much as a hundred pints in twenty-foui- hours. Much sugar is made 
from it, especially in Ceylon. It also affords a sago, and a fibre for fishing 
lines, known in England as " Indian gut." A woolly stuff found at the 
springing of the fronds, is said by Drm'y to be used for caulking. I may 
add that it makes an excellent amadou for smokers ; but the specific name 
does not come from this fact, as I have heard suggested, but from the 
burning acridity of the fruit when applied to the tongue. The caryota, 
with its enormous jagged fr^onds, and huge pendulous bunches of little 
bead-like berries, is a very beautiful object. The fruit is actually used for 
beads by the Mahomedans. Buchanan (Mysore, etc., ii, 454) says its leaves 
are the favourite food of the elephant, and that its sugar is superior to 
that of the palmyra, but inferior to that of the cocoa nut. 

2 The banyan : 

" Such as at this day, to Indians known 
In Malabar or Decan, spreads her anns 
Branching so broad and long, that in the ground 
The bended twigs take root, and daughters grow 
About the mother -tree, a pillared shade 
High over-arched, and echoing walks between : 
There oft the Indian herdsman, shunning heat. 
Shelters in cool, and tends his pastui-ing herds 
At loopholes cut through thicket shade." 

(Paradise Lost, b. ix.) 
Which noble lines are almost an exact versification of Pliny's description 
(xii, 11). Drury qiiotes Roxburgh as mentioning banyans, the vertical 



There is [also] a tree harder than all, which the strongest 
arrows can scarcely pierce. 

12. The trees in this India, and also in India the Greater, 
never shed their leaves till the new ones come.^ 

13. To write about the other trees would be too long a 
business, and tedious beyond measure ; seeing that they are 
many and divers, and beyond the comprehension of man. 

14. But about wild beasts of the forest I say this : there 
be lions, leopards, ounces, and another kind something like 
a greyhound, having only the ears black and the whole 
body perfectly white, which among those people is called 
Siagois} This animal, whatever it catches, never lets go, 
even to death. There is also another animal, which is called 
Rhinoceros ,^ as big as a horse, having one horn long and 
twisted ; but it is not the unicorn. 

15. There be also venomous animals, such as many ser- 
pents, big beyond bounds, and of divers colours, black, red, 

shadow of wliicli liad a circumference of five liundi-ed yards. Just about 
half this size is the largest I have seen, near Hushyarpur in the Northern 
Punjab. It is remarkable in some of the largest of these trees, that you 
cannot tell which has been the original and " mother-tree/' that having 
probably decayed and disappeared. The age of these trees is sometimes 
by no means so great as first impressions suggest. There is a very fine 
one in the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, (its exact size I do not remember, 
but the shade is not less than a hundred and eighty to two hundred feet 
across), whereof the garden tradition runs, that it originated in Eox- 
burgh's time, i.e., eighty or ninety years ago. It has, however, been care- 
fully tended and ea;tended, the vertical fibres being protected by bamboo 
tubes when young. It is said to have grown originally in the crown of a 
date tree, as often happens. 

^ True in a general way, but with exceptions, specific and local. 

2 Siya-gosh (black-ear), the Persian name of the lynx. I have not been 
able to hear of a white lynx. The lynx of the Dekkan, which is probably 
meant (felis caracal), has only the under part white, the back being a pale 
reddish brown. Its tenacity is a noted featiu-e. 

^ " Quod vacatur rinocerunta" ! The rhinoceros is not now, I believe, 
found in any part of India south (or west) of the Ganges ; but it has 
become extinct in my own time in the forests of Rajmahl, on the right 
bank of that river ; and very possibly extended at one time much further 
west, though our author's statement is too vague to buikl upon, and 
scarcely indicates personal knowledge of the animal. 

m' FlUAR JUUDA?sUS. ^^ 

white, and green, and parti-coloured ; two-headed also,three- 
hcaded, and five-headed. Admirable marvels '.^ 

IG. There be also coquodriles, which are vulgarly called 
Calcatix;^ some of them be so big that they be bigger than 
the biggest horse. These animals be like lizards, and have 
a tail stretched over all, like unto a lizard's ; and have a 
head like unto a swine's, and rows of teeth so powerful and 
horrible that no animal can escape their force, particularly 
in the water. This animal has, as it were, a coat of mail ; 
and there is no sword, nor lance, nor arrow, which can any- 
how hurt him, on account of the hardness of his scales. In 
the water, in short, there is nothing so strong, nothing so 
evil, as this wonderful animal. There be also many other 
reptiles, whose names, to speak plainly, I know not. 

iT. As for birds, I say plainly that they are of quite dif- 
ferent kinds from what are found on this side of the world; 
except, indeed, crows and sparrows f for there be parrots 
and popinjays in very great numbers, so that a thousand or 
more may be seen in a Hock. These birds, when tamed and 
kept in cages, speak so that you would take them for rational 
beings. There be also bats really and truly as big as kites. 
These birds fly nowhither by day, but only when the sun 
sets. Wonderful! By day they hang themselves up on 
trees by the feet, with their bodies downwards, and in the 
daytime they look just like big fruit on the tree."^ 

1 Two-headed and even tkree -headed serpents might be suggested by 
the portentous appearance of a cobra with dilated hood and spectacles, 
especially if the spectator were (as probably would be the case) in a gi-eat 
fright. But for five heads I can make no apology. 

2 This has puzzled me sorely, and I sought it vainly among Tamul and 
MalayaHm synonyms. At the last moment the Hght breaks in upon me. 
It is, Fr., cocatrix ; Ital., calcatrice ; Anglice, a cocTcatrice ! 

3 Polo says : " Here and thi-oughout all India the birds and beasts are 
different fi.'om ours, except one bird, which is the quail." (iii, 20.) 

4 A literaUy accurate description of the great Indian bat, or flying fox. 
They generally cluster on some great banyan tree. These, I presume, are 
what Mai'co Polo quaintly calls "bald owls which fly in the night : they 
have neither wings (?) nor feathers, and are as large as an eagle." (iii, 20.) 


18. There are also other birds, such as peacocks, quails, 
Indian fowls,^ and others, divers in kind ; some white as 
white can be, some green as green can Le, some parti- 
coloured, of such beauty as is past telling. 

19. In this India, when men go to the wars, and when 
they act as guards to their lords, they go naked, with a 
round target, — a frail and paltry affair, — and holding a kind 
of a spit^ in their hands ; and, truly, their fighting seems 
like child's play. 

20. In this India are many and divers precious stones, 
among which are the best diamonds under heaven. These 
stones never can be dressed or shaped by any art, except 
what nature has given. But I omit the properties of these 
stones, not to be prolix. 

21. In this India are many other precious stones, en- 
dowed with excellent virtues, which may be gathered by 
anybody ; nor is anyone hindered. 

22. In this India, on the death of a noble, or of any 
people of substance, their bodies are burned : and eke their 
wives follow them alive to the fire, and, for the sake of 
worldly glory, and for the love of their husbands, and for 
eternal life, burn along with them, with as much joy as if 
they were going to be wedded ; and those who do this have 
the higher repute for virtue and perfection among the rest. 

There is a good account of the flying fox^ and an excellent cut, in Ten- 
nent's Nat. History of Ceylon. On the Indiarubber trees at the Botanic 
Gardens near Kandy, they "hang in such prodigious numbers that 
frequently large branches give way beneath their accumulated weight." 
(p. 16.) Shall I be thought to be rivalling my author in the recital of 
marvels, if I say that in 1845 I saw, near Delhi, large branches which had 
been broken off by the accumulated weight — of locusts a few days before ? 
So all the peasantry testified. 

1 Probably some kind of jungle-fowl, such as Gallus Sonneratii. Pheasants 
are not found in southern India. 

2 Spatham, a straight sword (?) ; but a contemptuous expression is evi- 
dently intended. Polo says : " The people go to battle with lance and 
shield, cntii-ely naked ; yet are they not valiant and coui-ageous, but mean 
and cowardly." 


Wonderful! I have sometimes seen, for one dead man who 
was burnt, five living women take their places on the fire 
with him, and die with their dead. 

2S. There be also other pagan-folk in this India who 
worship fire; they bury not their dead, neither do they 
burn them, but cast them into the midst of a certain roofless 
tower, and there expose them totally uncovered to the fowls 
of heaven. These believe in two First Principles, to wit, of 
Evil and of Good, of Darkness and of Light, matters which 
at present I do not purpose to discuss.^ 

24. There be also certain others which be called Dumhri, 
who eat carrion and carcases; who have absolutely no object 
of worship ; and who have to do the drudgeries of other 
people, and carry loads. ^ 

25. In this India there is green ginger, and it grows 
there in great abundance.^ 

There be also sugar-canes in quantities ; carobs also, of 
such size and bigness that it is something stupendous.^ I 
could tell very wonderful things of this India; but I am not 
able to detail them for lack of time. Cassia fistula is in 
some parts of this India extremely abundant.^ 

1 Is not tliis short and accurate statement tlie first account of the Parsis 
in India, and of their strange disposal of the dead ? 

2 The Domra or Bom, one of the lowest Indian castes, and supposed to 
represent one of the aboriginal races. They are to this day, in Upper 
India, the persons generally employed to remove carcases, and to do the 
like jobs; sometimes also as hangmen. In the Dekkan they seem, accord- 
ing to Dubois (p. 468), who caUs them Dumbars, to be often tumblers, con- 
jurors, and the like. 

3 Ginger is cultivated in aU parts of India. That of Malabar is best. 

4 Carrohice, — referring, I presume, to the carob of the Mediten-anean 
(Ceratonia siliqua). 1 do not know what he means unless it be tamai-inds, 
which are leguminous pods with some analogy to the carobs of the Medi- 
terranean. The trees may often be called stupendous ; but this seems 
scarcely to be his meaning. The European name is Arabic, tdmar-ul-Hind 
(date of India), as Linschoten long ago pointed out. 

5 Cassia fistula of Linnaeus, if that be what is meant, is found in the 
Travancore forests, and probably all over India. Its beautiful, pendulous 


26. The people of this India are very clean in their feed- 
ing; true in speech, and eminent in justice, maintaining 
carefully the privileges of every man according to his degree, 
as they have come down from old times. ^ 

27. The heat there is perfectly horrible, and more in- 
tolerable to strangers than it is possible to say.^ 

racemes of yellow flowers, shewing something like a Brobdignag labur- 
num, make it a favourite in tbe gardens of Upper India. It affords a laxa- 
tive medicrue, and is given by Milburn among the exports of western 
India. The long, cylindrical pods, sometimes two feet long, probably 
give the specific name. It is possible, however, that the bishop did not 
mean C. fistula, but cassia lignea, an inferior cinnamon, which grows in 
Malabar forests, and was at one time largely exported from Calicut and 
the other ports. Barbosa mentions it as canella selvatica. Linschoten says 
that it was worth only about one-fifth of the Ceylon cinnamon. It is per- 
haps the cassia of Pliny. It is remarkable however that he says the choice 
cassia was called by the barbarians by the name of lada ; and lada is the 
generic name which the Malays give to all the species of pepper, the word 
signifying pungent. (See Drury ; Crawfurd's Malay Diet. ; and Bohn's 
Pliny, xii, 43.) 

^ This is a remarkable testimony to the character of the Hindus when 
yet uninjured by foreign domination or much foreign intercourse. M. 
Polo says the Abraiamain (Brahmans) " are the best and most honest of 
an merchants, and would not on any account teU a lie" (p. 304). Eabbi 
Benjamin says also, "This nation is very trustworthy in matters of trade, 
and whenever foreign merchants enter their port, three secretaries of the 
king immediately repair on board their vessels, write down their names, 
and report them to him. The king thereupon grants them security for 
their property, which they may even leave in the open fields without any 
guard" {Asher's Itinerary of E. Benj. of Tud., p. 138 et seq.). There are 
many other passages, both in ancient and mediaeval writers, giving an 
extravagantly high character for integrity and veracity to the Hindus, 
a character not very often deserved by them, and never ascribed to them, 
now-a-days. See some remarks on this subject in Elphinstone' s History, 
book iii. ch. xi. 

It is cuiious, however, that, with reference to the very district of Tra- 
vancore, which now includes QuHon, where the bishop's experience must 
have chiefly lain, two English Residents have borne testimony lamentably 
opposed to his account of the character of the people in former times. 
One of these declares that " he never knew a people so destitute of truth 
and honesty, or so abandoned to vice and corruption" ; the other asserts 
that " in no part of the world are men to be found to whose habits and 
affections the practice of vice is so familiar" (Hamilton's Desc. Hindost., 
ii. 315). 

2 Says Marco, " The heat of the sun can scarcely be endured ; if you 


28. In this India there exists not, nor is found, any metal 
but what comes from abroad, except gold, iron, and electrum. 
There is no pepper there, nor any kind of spice except 

29. In this India the greater part of the people worship 
idols, although a great share of the sovereignty is in the 
hands of the Turkish Saracens, who came forth from Multan, 
and conquered and usurped dominion to themselves not long 
since, and destroyed an infinity of idol temples, and like- 
wise many churches, of which they made mosques for 
Mahomet, taking possession of their endowments and pro- 
perty. 'Tis grief to hear, and woe to see !^ 

30. The Pagans of this India have prophecies of their 
own that we Latins are to subjugate the whole world.^ 

31. In this India there is a scattered people, one here, 
another there, who call themselves Christians, but are not 
so, nor have they baptism, nor do they know anything else 
about the faith. Nay, they believe St. Thomas the Great 
to be Christ ! 

32. There, in the India I speak of, I baptized and brought 
into the faith about three hundred souls, of whom many 
were idolaters and Saracens.^ 

put an egg into any river, it will be boiled before you have gone any great 
distance." (iii. 25.) 

1 The reason of the reference to Multan is obscure. The allusion would 
seem to be to the conquest of the Carnatic and Malabar by the generals of 
the Khilji sovereigns of Delhi, Ala-ud-din and Mubarik (a.d. 1310 — 1319). 
The Khiljis were Turks by descent. Mooltan was at this time subject to 
Delhi {Elphinstone's History, pp. 343, 348, and Briggs's Ferishta). But, 
perhaps, the "not long since" has a wider import, and refers to the con- 
quests and iconoclasms of the great Mahmud of Ghazni, 300 years before. 
Indeed, he is here speaking of the Lesser India, i.e. of Sindh, Gujerat, and 
the Konkan, the scene of some of Mahmud' s most memorable expeditions. 
Mahmvid coming fi-om Grhazni would come through Multan, and indeed he 
took that city several times. 

2 Perhaps a reference to the notions of Mahomedans about the latter 
days. But I think I have read of indications of this belief among Hindus, 
though I cannot quote them. This one is remarkable at so early a date. 

3 I need scarcely say that by Saracens he means Mahomedans, just as 


33. And let me tell you that among the idolaters a man 
may with safety expound the Word of the Lord ; nor is any- 
one from among the idolaters hindered from being baptized 
throughout all the East, whether they be Tartars, or Indians, 
or what not. 

34. These idolaters sacrifice to their gods in this manner ; 
to wit, there is one man who is priest to the idol, and he 
wears a long shirt, down to the ground almost, and above 
this a white surplice^ in our fashion ; and he has a clerk 
with a shirt who goes after him, and carries a hassock, 
which he sets before the priest. And upon this the priest 
kneels, and so begins to advance from a distance, like one 
performing his stations ; and he carries upon his bent arms 
a tray of two cubits [long], all full of eatables of different 
sorts, with lighted tapers at top; and thus praying he comes 
up to the altar where the idol is, and deposits the oflfering 
before it after their manner ; and he pours a libation, and 
places part [of the offering] in the hands of the idol, and 
then divides the residue, and himself eats a part of it. 

35. They make idols after the likeness of almost all living 
things of the idolaters; and they have besides their god 
according to his likeness.^ It is true that over all gods they 
place One God, the Almighty Creator of all those.^ They 

these were called Moors by our people in India in tlie last century, and by 
some classes of Em-opeans perhaps to our own day. So also the Prayer- 
book, in the collect for Good Friday, speaks of " Jews, Turks, infidels, and 
* " Planeta." 

2 Somewhat obscure. " Isti faciunt idola fere ad similitudinem omnium 
rerum idolotrarwn animantium; hdbent desuper deum suum, ad similitu- 
dinem suam." 

3 Apart from the Brahminical theosophies, the expressions of Hindus 
generally, when religious (not superstitious) feeling or expression is drawn 
out, by sorrow or the like, are often piirely Theistic. Farmeswar or Bhag- 
wdn in such cases is evidently meant to express the One Almighty, and 
no fabled divinity. But the old geographer in Eamusio makes the sin- 
gular assertion that " all the country of Malabai- believes in the Trinity, 
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and this beginning at Cambay and ending 


hold also that the world has existed now xxviii thousand 

years. ^ 

The Indians, both of this India and of the other Indies, 
never kill an ox, but rather honour him like a father ; and 
some, even perhaps the majority, worship him. They will 
more readily spare him who has slain five men than him 
who has slain one ox, saying that it is no more lawful to 
kill an ox than to kill one's father. This is because oxen do 
all their services, and moreover furnish them with milk and 
butter, and all sorts of good things.^ The great lords 
among the idolaters, every morning when they rise, and 
before they go anywhither, make the fattest cows come 
before them, and lay their hands upon them, and then rub 
their own faces, believing that after this they can have no 

36. Let this be enough about Lesser India ; for were I 
to set forth particulars of everything down to worms and 
the like, a year would not suffice for the description. 

37. But [I may say in conclusion] as for the women and 
men, the blacker they be, the more beautiful they be 
[held.] 3 

at Bengal". Conti says the same at Ava, but he was doubtless misled 
by the Buddhist triad, Buddha, Dharma, Sanghor-fhe Divine person, 
the Law, and the Congregation. 

• This does not agree in any way with any version of the Hindu my- 
thical chronology that I know of. 

2 It would go hard with a man yet in a Hindu state who should kill an 
ox. It was capital under the Sikhs. 

3 *' Whoever is most deeply tinted is honoui^ed in proportion" (M. Polo, 
p. 304). So, among the flat-nosed Mongols, Kubruquis says, " et qu<B 
minus hdbet de naso, ilia jpulchrior reputatur !" 




1. Of India the Greater I say this; that it is like unto 
Lesser India as regards all the folk being black. The 
animals also are all similar, neither more nor less [in num- 
ber], except elephants, which they have [in the former] in 
very great plenty. These animals are marvellous ; for they 
exceed in size and bulk and strength, and also in under- 
standing, all the animals of the world. This animal hath a 
big head ; small eyes, smaller than a horse's ; ears like the 
wings of owls or bats ; a nose reaching quite to the ground, 
extending right down from the top of his head ; and two 
tusks standing out of remarkable magnitude [both in] bulk 
and length, which are [in fact] teeth rooted in the upper 
jaw. This animal doth everything by word of command ; 
so that his driver hath nothing to do but say once, " Do this," 
and he doeth it ; nor doth he seem in other respects a brute, 
but rather a rational creature. They have very big feet, 
with six hoofs like those of an ox, or rather of a camel.^ 
This animal carrieth easily upon him, with a certain struc- 
ture of timber, more than thirty men ; and he is a most 
gentle beast,^ and trained for war, so that a single animal 
counteth by himself equal in war to 1,500 men and more ; 
for they bind to his tusks blades or maces of iron wherewith 
he smiteth. Most horrible are the powers of this beast, and 
specially in war. 

2. Two things there be which cannot be withstood by 
arms: one is the bolt of heaven ; the second is a stone from 

» Than the bishop's description thus far I doubt if a better is to be found 
till long after his time. The numbers of men represented to be carried 
on the hauda seem not very credible to us and must be exaggerated, 
but all ancient accounts do speak of much larger numbers than we now-a- 
days are accustomed to put upon elephants under any circumstances. 

2 " A very pious animal/' as a German friend in India said to me, misled 
by the double sense of his vernacular fromm. 



an artillery engine ; this is a third ! For there is nothing 
that cither can or dare stand against the assault of an ele- 
phant in any manner. A marvellous thing ! He kneeleth, 
lieth, sitteth, goeth and cometh, merely at his master's 
word. In short, it is impossible to write in words the pecu- 
liarities of this animal. 

3. In this India there are pepper and ginger, cinnamon, 
brazil,^ and all other spices. 

4. Ginger is the root of a plant which hath leaves like a 
reed. Pepper is the fruit of a plant something like ivy, 
which climbs trees, and forms grape-like fruit like that of 
the wild vine.2 This fruit is at first green, then when it 
comes to maturity it becomes all black and corrugated as 
you see it. 'Tis thus that long pepper is produced, nor are 
you to believe that fire is placed under the pepper, nor that 
it is roasted, as some will lyingly maintain.^ Cinnamon is 

1 Brazil. This is tlie sappan-wood, affording a red dye, frora a species 
of caesalinna found in nearly aU tropical Asia, from Malabar eastward. 
Tlie name of brazil wood is now appropriated to tbat (derived from 
another species of caesalpina) which comes from BrazH, and which, 
according to MaccuUoch, gives twice as much dye fr-om the same weight 
of wood. The history of the names here is worthy of note. Fu-st, Irazil 
is the name of the Indian wood in commerce. Then the great country is 
caUed Brazil, because a somewhat similar wood is found abundantly 
there. And now the Indian wood is robbed of its name, which is appro- 
priated to that found in a country of the New World, and is supposed 
popularly to be derived from the name of that country. I do not know 
the origin of the word Irazil. Sappan is from the Malay name (saimng) . 
- " Lamhruscce." 

3 The black pepper vine is indigenous in the forests of Malabar and 
Travancore (the districts which the Bishop has in his eye) ; and the 
Malabar pepper is acknowledged to be the best that is produced. The 
vines are planted at the base of trees with rough bark, the mango and 
others, and wiU climb twenty or thirty feet if allowed. After being 
gathered, the ben-ies are di'ied on mats in the sun, turning from red to 
black. Pepper was for ages the staple article of export to Europe from 
India, and it was with it that Vasco de Gama loaded Ms ships on his fii-st 
voyage. A very interesting article on pepper wiU be found in that 
treasm-y of knowledge, Crawford's Dictionary of the Archipelago. 

The Bishop's mention of "long pepper" shews confusion, probably in 
his amanuensis or copyist; for long pepper is the produce of a different 


the bark of a large tree which has fruit and flowers like 

5. In this India be many islands, and more than 10,000 
of them inhabited, as I have heard ; wherein are many world's 
wonders.^ For there is one called Silem, where are found 
the best precious stones in the whole world, and in the 
greatest quantity and number, and of all kinds.^ 

6. Between that island and the main are taken pearls or 
marguerites, in such quantity as to be quite wonderful. So 
indeed that there are sometimes more than 8,000 boats or 
vessels, for three months continuously, [engaged in this 
fishery]. It is astounding, and almost incredible, to those 
who have not seen it, how many are taken. 

7. Of birds I say this : that there be many different from 

genus (Chavica), whicli is not a vine, but a slirub, whose stems are 
annual. Tlie chemical composition and properties are nearly tlie same as 
those of black pepper. Crawford draws attention to the fact that, by 
Pliny's account, piper longum bore between three and foiu: times the 
price of black pepper in the Roman market. (Drury in voc. — Crawfurd's 
Diet.) Though long pepper is now cultivated in Malabar, it was not so, 
or at least not exported, in the sixteenth century. Linschoten says ex- 
pressly that the "long pepper groweth onely in Bengala and Java." 
(p. ill.) Its price at Rome was probably therefore a fancy one, due to 
its rarity. It is curious that Pliny supposed pepper to grow in pods, and 
that the long pepper was the immature pod picked and prepared for the 
market. He corrects a popular error that ginger was the root of the 
pepper tree (bk. xii). Ibn Batuta, like our Bishop, contradicts what 
" some have said, that they boil it in order to dry it," as without founda- 
tion. But their predecessor, E. Benjamin, says — "the pepper is originally 
white, but when they collect it, they put it in basins and pour hot water 
upon it ; it is then exposed to the heat of the sun," etc. 

1 The cinnamon must have been the wild cinnamon or cassia. There 
is an article in Indian commerce called " cassia buds," bearing some re- 
semblance to cloves, and having the flavour of cinnamon. It is said by 
some to be the unexpanded flower of the Laurus cassia, but, strange to 
say, this seems still undetermined. (See Penny Cyc.) 

2 Polo says the islands of India are estimated at 12,700 inhabited and 
uninhabited (iii, 37), and those of the China Sea at 7,448 (iii, 5). The 
Lakkadives are supposed to derive theii- name from Laksha or Lakh = 

^ Ceylon, called by Polo Seilan, and the same by Ibn Batuta. 


those of Lesser India, and of different colours ; for there be 
some white all over as snow ; some red as scarlet of the 
grain ; some green as grass ; some parti-coloured ; in such 
quantity and dclectability as cannot be uttered. Parrots 
also, or popinjays, after their kind, of every possible colour 
except black, for black ones are never found ; but white all 
over, and green, and red, and also of mixed colours. The 
birds of this India seem really like creatures of Para- 

8. There is also told a marvellous thing of the islands 
aforesaid, to wit that there is one of them in which there is 
a water, and a certain tree in the middle of it. Every metal 
which is washed with that water becomes gold ; every wound 
on which are placed the bruised leaves of that tree is incon- 
tinently healed. 

9. In this India, whilst I was at Columbum, were found 
two cats having wings like the wings of bats ;^ and in Lesser 
India there be some rats as big as foxes, and venomous ex- 

10. In this India are certain trees which have leaves so 

1 The gorgeous lories of tlie Arcliipelago must have been imported to 
Quilon, and have been here in the Bishop's remembrance. 

2 No doubt the large flying squii-rel, which is found in Malabar and 
Ceylon as well as in Eastern India. 

3 The bandicoot; Mus Malabaricus, or Mus giganticus. The name is 
said by Sir E. Tennent (Nat. Hist, of Ceylon, p. 44) to be from the Te- 
loogoo Pandi-hohu, " Pig -rat." " This rat is found in many places on the 
coast of Coromandel, in Mysore, and in several parts of Bengal between 
Calcutta and Hurdwar. It is a most mischievous animal, burrows to a 
gi'eat depth, and will pass under the foundations of granai'ies and store- 
houses if not carefully laid." {General HardwicJce in Linncean Trans., vii,, 
quoted in Pen. Cyc, article Muridce.) The animal figured by Hardwicke 
was a female ; its total length was 26^ inches, of which the tail was 13 
inches ; and the weight was 2 pounds 11^ ounces. This is not quite so 
big as a fox, though the foxes in India are very small. As an exaggera- 
tion, it is far fr'om a parallel to that of Herodotus, who speaks (bk. iii.) 
of ants in India as big as foxes. A story which reminds one of the ques- 
tion of a young Scotch lady just arrived in the Hoogly, when she saw an 
elephant for the first time, " Wull yon be what's called a musqueetae ?" 


big that five or six men can very well stand under the shade 
of one of them.^ 

11. In the aforesaid island of Sylen is a very potent king, 
who hath precious stones of every kind under heaven, in 
such quantity as to be almost incredible. Among these he 
hath two rubies, of which he weareth one hung round his 
neck, and the other on the hand wherewith he wipeth his 
lips and his beard ; and [each] is of greater length than the 
breadth of four fingers, and when held in the hand it standeth 
out visibly on either side to the breadth of a finger. I do not 
believe that the universal world hath two stones like these, 
or of so great a price, of the same species.^ 

12. There is also another island where all the men and 
women go absolutely naked, and have in place of money 
comminuted gold like fine sand. They make of the cloth 
which they buy walls like curtains f nor do they cover them- 
selves or their shame at any time in the world. 

13. There is also another exceeding great island, which 
is called Jaua,^ which is in circuit more than seven [thou- 
sand ?] miles as I have heard,^ and where are many world's 
wonders. Among which, besides the finest aromatic spices, 
this is one, to wit, that there be found pygmy men, of the 

1 The Talipat (Corypha umhraculifera) , or great fan-palm, abundant in 
Ceylon, and found in tlie southern part of the peninsula, in Burma, and 
in the Malay islands, but scarcely known in Bengal. The leaves, accord- 
ing to Sir J. E. Tennent, have sometimes an area of two hundred square 

2 " The King [of Ceylon] has the most beautiful ruby that ever was or 
can be in the whole world. It is the most splendid object on earth, and 
seems to glow like fire ; it is of such value as money could scarcely pur- 
chase." (Polo, iii. 17). 

" I also saw in the possession of the King [of Ceylon] a saucer made 
of ruby, as large as the palm of the hand, in which he kept oil of aloes. 
I was much surprised at it, when the king said to me, ' We have much 
larger than this.' " (Ihn Batuta., p. 187). 

3 " De jpannis quos emunt faciunt ad moclum cortinarum parietes." 
^ " Jana," by mistranscription doubtless. 

^ His Java vaguely represents the Archipelago generally, with some 
special reference to Sumatra. 


size of a boy of three or four years old, all shaggy like a 
he goat. They dwell in the woods, and few are found. ^ 

14. In this island also are white mice, exceeding beau- 
tiful. There also are trees producing cloves, which, when 
they are in flower, emit an odour so pungent that they kill 
every man who cometh among them, unless he shut his 
mouth and nostrils.^ 

15. There too are produced cubebs, and nutmegs, and 
mace, and all the other finest spices except pepper.^ 

16. In a certain part of that island they delight to eat 
white and fat men when they can get them.* 

17. In the Greater India, and in the islands, all the people 

^ Polo, in one chapter on Sumatra, tells liow stuffed pygmies were ma- 
nufactui-ed for the western markets by shaving monkeys, " for neither in 
India, nor in any other country however savage, are there men so small 
as these pretended ones." Yet, in another chapter, his incredulity gives 
way, and he tells of haiiy men with tails, who remain in the mountains, 
never visiting the towns. No doubt the orang-utang, which exists in 
Sumatra, is at the bottom of these pygmy stories. The pygmies and 
cannibals together identify Sumatra as the scene of one of Sindbad's ad- 
ventures ; not the Andamans, as a reviewer in the Athenceum lately said. 

2 This seems to be a jumble of the myths about the spice-groves and 
the upas tree. 

3 The cubeb (Piper cuheha and P. caricum) is the only one of the spices 
named which grows in Java proper. In those days it was probably ex- 
ported as a condiment chiefly. This statement that pepper was not pro- 
duced in the islands confu'ms the inference of the sagacious Crawford, 
that it is exotic in Sumatra. (See his Diet, of the Archip., article Pepper.) 

^ In Sumatra, we read, " Man's flesh, if it be fat, is eaten as ordinarily 
there as beefe in our country. Marchants comming vnto this region 
for traffique do vsually bring to them fat men, selling them vnto the in- 
habitants as we sel hogs, who immediately kil and eate them." (Odoricus, 
in Hakluyt, vol. ii.) 

"In one part of the island, called Batech, the inhabitants eat human 
flesh," etc. (Conti in India in the Fifteenth Century, p. 9.) The canni- 
balism of certain tribes in Sumatra is noticed with more or less exagge- 
ration by several other old travellers, and has been confirmed in the pre- 
sent centui'y. The tribe is that of the Battas or Battaks, as con-ectly 
named by Conti, a race presenting the singular anomaly of Anthi'opophagi 
with a literature. Some have supposed that they may be the cannibal 
Paddaei of Herodotus (iii. 99). It is not impossible, for the more we 
learn the further goes back the history of Eastern navigation. 



be black, and go naked from tbe loins upwards, and from 
the knee downwards, and without shoes. 

18. But the kings have this distinction from others, that 
they wear upon their arms gold and silver rings, and on the 
neck a gold collar with a great abundance of gems.^ 

19. In this India never do [even] the legitimate sons of 
great kings, or princes, or barons, inherit the goods of their 
parents, but only the sons of their sisters ; for they say that 
they have no surety that those are their own sons, because 
wives and mistresses may conceive and generate by some 
one else ; but 'tis not so with the sister, for whatever man 
may be the father they are certain that the offspring is from 
the womb of their sister, and is consequently thus truly of 
their blood.^ 

20. In this Greater India many sacrifice themselves to 
idols in this way. When they are sick, or involved in any 
grave mischance, they vow themselves to the idol if they 
should happen to be delivered. Then, when they have re- 
covered, they fatten themselves for one or two years conti- 
nually, eating and drinking fat things, etc. And when another 

1 " Now, in all tMs province of Maabar, there is not a tailor, for the 
people go naked at every season. The air is always so temperate, that 
they wear only a piece of cloth round the middle. The king is dressed 
just like the others, except that his cloth is finer, and he wears a necklace 
full set with rubies, etc. He wears also round thi-ee parts both of his 
arms and legs, bracelets of gold, full of goodly stones and pearls." (Polo, 
iii. 20.) 

2 For the continued existence of this remarkable custom of inheritance 
among the Nairs of Malabar, and for a description of the singular rela- 
tions of the sexes out of which it springs, see a statement in Mr. Mark- 
ham's late Travels in Peru and India, p. 345. I am collecting, for another 
paper, the various examples of this law of inheritance in detail, and will 
only here mention that it exists, or has existed, also in Canara, (but there 
derived from the Nairs) ; among the aborigines of Hispaniola, and tribes 
of New Granada and Bogota ; among negro tribes of the Niger ; among 
certain sections of the Malays of Sumatra; in the royal family of Tipura, 
and among the Kasias of the Sylhet mountains (both east of Bengal) ; in 
a district of Ceylon adjoining Bintenne; in Madagascar; in the Fiji islands; 
and among the Hvu-ons and Natchez of North America. 


festival comes round, they cover themselves with flowers 
and perfumes, and crown themselves with white garlands, 
and go with singing and playing before the idol when it is 
carried through the land (like the image of the Virgin Mary 
here among us at the Rogation tides) ; and those men who 
are sacrificing themselves to the idol carry a sword with two 
handles, like those [knives] which are used in currying lea- 
ther ; and, after they have shown off a great deal, they put 
the sword to the back of the neck, cutting strongly with a 
vio-orous exertion of both hands, and so cut off their own 
heads before the idol.^ 

1 Barbosa says tliat the King of Quilacare (Coilacaud), a city near Cape 
Comorin, after reigning twelve years, always sacrificed liimself to an idol. 
See also Odoricus, in Hakluyt, ii. 161. The singular narrative in the text 
reminds us of Sii' Jonah Barrington's story of the Irish mower, who, 
making a dig at a sahnon in a pool with the butt end of his scythe, which 
was over his shoulder, dropt his own head into the water. There is a 
remarkably parallel story in Ihn Batuta. When he was at the court of 
the pagan king of Mul-Java (which is certainly not Java, as the editors 
make it, but, as I hope to show elsewhere, Cambodia, or some country on 
the main in that quarter), he says, " I one day saw, in the assembly of 
this prince, a man with a long knife in his hand, which he placed upon 
his own neck ; he then made a long speech, not a word of which I could 
understand ; he then firmly grasped the knife, and its sharpness, and the 
force with which he urged it, were such that he severed his head from his 
body, and it fell on the ground. I was wondering much at the circum- 
stance, when the king said to me : ' Does any one among you do such a 
thing as this ?' I answered, ' I never saw one do so.' He smiled, and 
said : ' These, our servants, do so out of theii* love to us.' One who had 
been present at the assembly, told me that the speech he made was a 
declaration of his love to the sultan, and that on this account he had 
killed himself, just as his father had done for the father of the present 
king, and his grandfather for the king's grandfather." {Lee's Ihn Batuta, 
p. 205.) Also we are told by Abu Zaid al Hasan, in Eeinaud's Relation 
des Voyages faits 'par les Arabes, etc. (Paris, 1845), how a young man of 
India, tjmg his hair to a great elastic bamboo stem, which was pulled 
down' to the ground, cut his own head off, teUing his friends to watch 
that they might see and hear how the head would laugh, as it sprang aloft 
with the resilient bamboo (i. 124). I wish I could relate, with the inte- 
resting detail with which it was told to me, a narrative which I heard 
from my fi^iend Lieut.-Colonel Keatinge, V.C, of the Bombay Ai-tiUery. 
When encamped near a certain sacred rock on the Nerbudda, in the pro- 
vince of Nimar which was under his charge, a stalwart young man was 



21 . In this Greater India, in the place where I was, the 
nights and days are almost equal, nor does one exceed the 
other in length at any season by so much as a full hour. 

22. In this India the sun keeps to the south for six 
months continuously, casting the shadows to the north ; and 
for the other six months keeps to the north, casting the 
shadow to the south.^ 

23. In this India the Pole-star is seen very low, insomuch 
that I was at one place where it did not show above the 
earth or the sea more than two fingers' breadth.^ 

24. There the nights, when the weather is fine and there 
is no moon, are, if I err not, four times as clear as in our 
part of the world. 

25. There also, if I err not, between evening and morn- 
ing, often all the planets may be seen ; there are seen their 
influences [as it w^ere] eye to eye, so that 'tis a delightful 
thing there to look out at night !^ 

26. From the place aforesaid is seen continually between 
the south and the east a star of great size and ruddy splen- 
dour, which is called Canopus, and which from these parts 
of the world is never visible. 

brought to him, who had come thither from a distance, for the purpose of 
sacrificing himseK by casting himself from the cliff, in folfiment of a vow 
made by his own mother before his birth, in case she should, after long 
sterility, have a living son. After long remonstrance Colonel Keatinge 
at last succeeded in convincing him that it would be quite lawful to sacri- 
fice a goat instead, and this having been done he departed with a relieved 

1 As Quilon is between 8° and 9° of north latitude this is somewhat 

2 So Polo says that at Guzerat "the north star rose to the apparent 
height of six cubits". This way of estimating celestial declinations ap- 
pears to convey some distinct meaning to simple people, and even to 
some by no means illiterate Europeans. I remember once in India, when 
looking out for Venus, which was visible about two p.m., a native servant 
directed me to look " about one bamboo length from the moon ;" and a 
young Englishman afterwards told me that he had seen it " about five 
feet from the moon." 

3 « ji^i videntur inJJucntioe oculo ad oculum, ita quod de node respicere est 


27. There are many marvellous things in the cycle of 
those [heavenly bodies] to delight a good astronomer.^ 

2S. In this India, and in India the Less, men who dwell 
a long way from the sea, under the ground and in woody 
tracts, seem altogether infernal ; neither eating, drinking, 
nor clothing themselves like the others who dwell by the 

29. There serpents too be numerous, and very big, of all 
colours in the world ; and it is a great marvel that they be 
seldom or never found to hurt anybody unless first attacked. 

30. There is there also a certain kind of wasps, which 
make it their business to kill very big spiders whenever they 
find them, and afterwards to bury them in the sand, in a 

1 " Astrologo." 

■2 Perhaps th.e good bishop by infernales does not mean infernal, but 
only inferior. Yet the expression reminds us of the constant strain of 
oriental tradition, which represents the aborigines under the aspect of 
Ralcshasas or Demons. The reference is to the various forest tribes of the 
Peninsula, who represent either the Dravidian races unmodified by civili- 
zation, (whether Hindu or pre-Hindu), or some yet antecedent races. Du- 
bois, speaking generally of the wild forest tribes of the south, says, " In 
the rainy season they shelter themselves in caverns, hollow trees, and 
clefts of the rocks ; and in fine weather they keep the oxjen field. They 
are almost entii-ely naked. The women wear nothing to conceal their 
nakedness but some leaves of trees stitched together, and bound round 
their waists," etc. (473.) And Mr. Markham describes the Poliars, a race 
of wild and timid men of the woods in the Pulney Hills, east of Cochin, 
who are possibly the very people whom Jordanus had in his eye, as being 
said to have no habitations, but to run through the jungle from place to 
place, to sleep under rocks, and live on wild honey and roots. They oc- 
casionally trade with the peasantry, who place cotton and grain on some 
stone, and the wild creatiu'es, as soon as the strangers are out of sight, 
take these and put honey in their place. But they will let no one come 
near them. (Peru and India, p. 404.) These -wild races were no doubt in 
the mind's eye of a little Hindu, who, duiing the examination of a native 
school by a late governor of Madi'as (now again occupying an eminent 
position in India), on being asked what became of the original inhabitants 
of Britain at the Saxon conquest ? replied, " They fled into Wales and 
Cornwall, and other remote parts, where they exist as a wild and bar- 
barous people to this day !" The little Hindu was not aware that — 

" By Pol, Tre, and Pen 
You may know the Cornish men." 


deep hole which they make, and so to cover them up that 
there is no man in the world who can turn them up, or find 
the place. ^ 

31. There is also a kind of very small ants, white as wool, 
which have such hard teeth that they gnaw through even 
timbers and the joints of stones,^ and, in short, whatever dry 
thing they find on the face of the earth, and mutilate woollen 
and cotton clothes. And they build out of the finest sand a 
crust like a wall, so that the sun cannot reach them, and s 
they remain covered. But if that crust happens to get 
broken, so that the sun reaches them, they incontinently 

3^. As regards insects, there be wonders, so many, great, 
and marvellous, that they cannot be told. 

33. There is also in this India a certain bird, big like a 
kite, having a white head and belly, but all red above, which 
boldly snatches fish out of the hands of fishermen and other 
people, and indeed [these birds] go on just like dogs."^ 

1 This is the practice of certain solitary wasps and kindred species, both 
in Europe and India (see Kirhy and Spence, Letter xi., etc.). The spiders, 
etc., form a store of food for the use of the larvae when hatched. 

2 " Venas lapidum." 

3 The most remarkable operation of white ants that I have heard of was 
told me by a scientific man, and I believe may be depended on. Having 
a case of new English harness, which he was anxious to secure from the 
white ants, he moved it about six inches from the wall, and placed it on 
stone vessels filled with water (as is often done), so that he considered it 
quite isolated and safe. On opening the case some time after he found 
the harness ruined, and on looking behind he saw that the white ants 
had actually projected their "crust" across the gap from the wall, so 
as to reach their prey by a tubular bridge. Here is engineering 
design as well as execution ! The ants have apparently a great objection 
to working under the light of day, but that they "incontinently die" is a 

■* ? " Et sic se ingerunt sicut canes." This appears to refer to the common 
rufous kite, abundant all over India. Of this, or a kindred kite. Sir J, E. 
Tennent says, " The ignoble birds of prey, the kites, keep close by the 
shore, and hover round the returning boats of the fishermen, to feast on 
the fry rejected from the nets" (Nat. Hist, of C, p. 246). The action de- 
scribed in the text is quite that of the Indian kite. I recollect seeing one 


34. There is also another big bird, not like a kite, which 
flies only at night, and utters a voice in the night season like 
the voice of a man wailing from the deep.^ 

35. What shall I say then ? Even the Devil too there 
speaketh to men, many a time and oft, in the night season, 
as I have heard.^ 

S6. Every thing indeed is a marvel in this India ! Verily 
it is quite another world ! 

37. There is also a certain part of that India which is 
called Champa. There, in place of horses, mules and asses, 
and camels, they make use of elephants for all their work.'^ 

swoop down upon a plate, which a servant was removing from the break- 
fast table in camp, and carry off the top of a silver muffineer, which how- 
ever it speedily dropped. 

^ This may be the bird spoken of in the latter part of the next note, 
but I think it is probably the Kulang (of Bengal), or great crane (Grus 
cinerea), which does travel at night, with a wailing cry dui-ing its flight. 

2 " Ut ego audivi." Ambiguum est, an ipse episcopus D m loquen- 

tem audivisset ? Not many years ago, an eccentric gentleman wrote n-om 
Sikkim to the secretary of the Asiatic Society in Calcutta, stating that, 
on the snows of the mountains there, were found certain mysterious foot- 
steps, mo7'e than thirty or forty paces asunder, which the natives alleged 
to be Shaitan's. The wi'iter at the same time offered, if Government 
would give him leave of absence for a certain period, etc., to go and trace 
the author of these mysterious vestiges, and thus this strange creature 
would be discovered without any expense to Government. The notion of 
catching Shaitan without any expense to Government was a sublime piece 
of Anglo-Indian tact, but the offer was not accepted. Our author had, 
however, in view probably the strange cry of the Devil-bird, as it is called 
in Ceylon. "The Singhalese regard it literally with horror, and its 
scream by night in the vicinity of a village is bewailed as the harbinger 
of impending calamity." " Its ordinary note is a magnificent clear shout, 
like that of a human being, and which can be heard at a great distance, 
and has a fine effect in the silence of the closing night. It has another 
cry like that of a hen just caught ; but the sounds which have earned for 
it its bad name, and which I have heard but once to perfection, are inde- 
scribable, the most appalling that can be imagined, and scarcely to be 
heard without shuddering; I can only compare it to a boy in torture, 
whose screams are stopped by being strangled." Mr. Mitford, fr*om whom 
Sir E. Tennent quotes the last passage, considers it to be a Podargus or 
night-hawk, rather than the brown owl as others have supposed. (Ten- 
nenfs Nat. Hist, of Ceylon, 246-8.) 

^ Champa is the Malay name of the coast of Cambodia, and appears in 


38. 'Tis a wonderful thing about these anhnals, that when 
they are in a wild state they challenge each other to war, 
and form troops [for the purpose] ; so that there will be 
sometimes a hundred against a hundred, more or less ; and 
they put the strongest and biggest and boldest at the head, 
and thus attack each other in turn, so that within a short time 
there will remain in one place XL or L killed and wounded, 
more or less. And 'tis a notable thing that the vanquished, 
it is said, never again appear in war or in the field. 

39. These animals, on account of their ivory, are worth as 
much dead as alive, nor are they ever taken when little, but 
only when big and full grown. 

40. And the mode of taking them is wonderful. En- 
closures are made, very strong, and of four sides, wherein 
be many gateways, and raised gates, formed of very big and 
strong timbers. And there is one trained female elephant 
which is taken near the place where the elephants come to 
feed. The one which they desire to catch is pointed out to 
her, and she is told to manage so as to bring him home. She 
goeth about him and about him, and so contriveth by stroking 
him and licking him, as to induce him to follow her, and to 
enter along with her the outer gate, which the keepers 
incontinently let fall. Then, when the wild elephant 
turneth about, the female entereth the second gate, which is 
instantly shut like the first, and so the [wild] elephant re- 
maineth caught between the two gates. Then cometh a man, 
clothed in black or red, with his face covered, who cruelly 
thrasheth him from above, and crieth out abusively against 
him as against a thief ; and this goeth on for five or six days, 
without his getting anything to eat or drink. Then cometh 

some form in our maps. Jordanus may have derived liis information about 
those countries from liis brother friar^ Odoricus, who visited Champa, and 
mentions the king's having 10,004 elephants. Late travellers in Cam- 
bodia use almost the expression in the text in speaking of the habitual 
employment of elephants in that country {e. g., see Mr. King, in Jour. Geog. 
Soc. for X860, p. 178). 


another fellow, with his face bare, and clad in another 
colour, who feigncth to smite the first man, and to drive and 
thrust him away; then he cometh to the elephant and 
talketh to him, and with a long spear he scratchcth him, and 
he kisseth him, and givcth him food ; and this goeth on for ten 
or fifteen days, and so by degrees he yentureth down beside 
him, and bindeth him to another elephant. And thus, after 
about twenty days, he may be taken out to be taught and 

broken in.^ . . 

41. In this Greater India are twelve idolatrous kings, and 

niore'.^ For there is one very powerful king in the country 

. This is evidently drawn from the life. Comp=^e the -— °f ^^^^ 
phant taming in Bm-ma in the Musion to Ava .n 18o5. pp. 103-5, and the 

^"fxTe —::«;. is only general and conventional. n.n ^uta 
says there were twelve kings in Malabar -lone, and even a greater numbex 
Z alluded to by some of the old traveUers. It is extremely difflcidt to 
Trice these kingdoms, both from the looseness of the statements and 
IZt ofTcce sL hi tories of the states of Southern India, and from 
Z atsenc^e o?any distinction between really ^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
and mere principaUties of small aecount, which may be noticed m Polo 
and the other travellers of the time as well as m our ^^^1^°^;^ 

Telenc however, he speaks of as a potent and great tmgdom Itas 
must have been tie kingdom of interior Telingana, called Anira the 

the Mussulman kingdom of Golkonda. ■„„^^,,, i^ thP Mah- 

There does not seem to liave been any very great kingdom m the Mah 

J^I covmtry at tHs time, and perhaps this is the reason why he there 

Their dynasty was subverted by the Mahommedans m 1317 I helieve 
there it^o mention of the Mahrattas by the Mussulman historians tdl 

n'ot^LT r K^IiT:; have disposed of in the preface We see 
Jethrtthe kingdom included (part at lea.t of) Moh.bak the Maabar 
of M^rPoloand of Ibn Batuta,«., thesouthern regions of theCoroman- 
frrrtLe Preface p xvi). Thenameisappai-entlyAi-abic (KaVtar-a 

tt: n^r ^enerthtpass^ 

rsLC«a,mayprobablyhavcbeen connected with thesectoftheimwet. 

Ttm e i t ng in"southein India, whose members weai- a representation of 


where pepper grows, and his kingdom is called Molebar. 
There is also the king of Singuyli and the king of Columbum, 

tlie Lingam or Sivaite emblem round their necks, and have many peculiar 
practices. He was certainly a Nair, as appears from what Jordanus has 
said of the law of succession. And among the rajas of Coorg, who were 
both Nairs and Lingayets, we find the name Linga borne by several 
during the last century. (Compare MarJcham's Peru and India ; Hamil- 
ton's Hindostan, ii. 288, etc.) 

I cannot trace any particulars of a king of Molepoor or Molepatam. 
But the only pearl fishery on the Indian main is at Tuticorin, about ninety 
miles north-east of Cape Comorin, and near this there is a place given by 
Hamilton, called Mooloopetta (=Mooloopatam), which may probably be 
the seat of the king alluded to. He was most likely the same as the king 
of Cail, spoken of by Marco Polo ; that place being apparently now re- 
presented by Coilpatam, a small seaport of Tinnevelly, in this immediate 
vicinity. This appears from Barbosa, who, at the beginning of the six- 
teenth century, states precisely that Cail was ninety miles from Cape 
Comorin, and that it was the seat of a great pearl market and fishery. 

Batigala, or Batikala, which, he says, had a Saracen king, is a port of 
Canara, fifty-five miles north of Mangalore ; it is called Batcul, or Batcole, 
in English maps. It is not mentioned by Ibn Batuta, the nearest au- 
thority in time ; but he does state that at Hinaur (Hunawur or Onore), a 
port a little to the north of Baticala, the people were Moslem, and their 
king " one of the best of princes," one Jamdl ad-Bin Mahommed Ibn Hasan, 
to whom Malabar generally paid tribute, dreading his bravery by sea, 
(which means, I suppose, that this excellent prince was a pupate). Very 
probably this was the king of Batigala to whom Jordanus refers. He was, 
however, himself "subject to an infidel king, whose name was Horaib" 
(Lee's Ibn Batuta, p. 166), doubtless the king of Narsinga or Bisnagur, 
whom Jordanus omits to mention. Two centuries later Barbosa describes 
Batticala as a great place, where many merchants trafiicked, and where 
were many Moors and Gentiles, great merchants. And the " Summary of 
Kingdoms," in Bamusio, says the king of Baticula was then a Gentile Ca- 
narese, "greater than him of Honor;" the governor, however, being a 
Moorish eunuch, named Caipha. Later in the sixteenth century, Vincent 
Le Blanc describes it as still a fine place, and one of great trade. 

The great king of Molebar, or Malabar, is, I suppose, the Samudra 
Eaja, or Zamorin of the Portuguese, whose capital was at Calicut. 

Singuyli is a nut hard to crack. Our friar's contemporary, Odoricus, 
calls the two chief ports of the pepper country in his day Flandrina and 
Cyncilim. The former is no doubt the Fandaraina of Ibn Batuta, " a large 
and beautiful place," the Colam Pandarani of Ramusio's Geographer, 
lying a little north of Calicut, but not marked in our modern maps. (The 
lying Mandevill says it was caUed Flandrina after Flanders by Ogero 
the Dane, who conquered those parts !) Cyncilim I suspect to be Kain 
Kulam or Cai Colam, one of the old ports a few miles north of Quilon, and 


the king of which is called Lingua, but his kingdom Mohebar. 
There Is also the king of Molcphatam, whose kingdom is 
called Molepoor, where pearls are taken in infinite quantities. 
There is also another king in the island of Sylen, where are 
found precious stones and good elephants. There be also 
three or four kings on the island of Java, where the good 
spices grow. There be also other kings,, as the king of 
Telenc, who is very potent and great. The kingdom of 
Telenc abounds in corn, rice, sugar, wax, honey and honey- 
comb, pulse, eggs, goats, buffalos, beeves, milk, butter, and 
in oils of divers kinds, and in many excellent fruits, more 
than any other part of the Indies. There is also the king- 
dom of Maratha which is very great; and there is the king 
of Batigala, but he is of the Saracens. There be also many 
kings in Chopa. 

42. What shall I say ? The greatness of this India is 
beyond description. But let this much suffice concerning 
India the Greater and the Less. 



L Of India Tertia I will say this, that I have not indeed 
seen its many marvels, not having been there, but have 
heard them from trustworthy persons. For example, there 
be dragons in the greatest abundance, which carry on their 

foi-merly a Httle kingdom. SinguyU is not very like Kain Kulam, but 
Cyncilim is somewliat Uke botli; and tlie position in wHcli he mentions 
it, between Calicut and Quilon, would suit. 

As for Chopa, I suspect it to be a misreading m^' ^'^ad as ^topa), 
for Champa, whereby he seems to mean hazHy India viltra Gangem m ge- 
neral, though the name belongs to Cambodia. 

3 India Tertia is apparently Eastern Africa, south of Abyssinia. 


heads the lustrous stones which be called carbuncles. These 
animals have their lying-place upon golden sands/ and grow 
exceeding big, and cast forth from the mouth a most fetid 
and infectious breath, like the thickest smoke rising from fire. 
These animals come together at the destined time, develope 
wings, and begin to raise themselves in the air, and then, 
by the judgment of God, being too heavy, they drop into a 
certain river which issues from Paradise, and perish there. 

2. But all the regions round about watch for the time of 
the dragons, and when they see that one has fallen, they 
wait for Ixx days, and then go down and find the bare bones 
of the dragon, and take the carbuncle which is rooted in the 
top of his head, and carry it to the emperor of the Ethiopians, 
whom you call Prestre Johan.^ 

3. In this India Tertia are certain birds, which are called 
Eoc, so big that they easily carry an elephant up into the 
air. I have seen a certain person who said that he had seen 
one of those birds, one wing only of which stretched to a 
length of eighty palms.^ 

4. In this India are the true unicorns, like a great horse, 
having only one horn in the forehead, very thick and sharp, 
but short, and quite solid, marrow and all.^ This creature,^ 

1 So far we have the old Herodotean myth (Her., iii. 116), which Milton 
has rendered into stately verse — 

" As when a gryphon in the wilderness 
With winged course, o'er hill or nioory dale. 
Pursues the Arimaspian, who by stealth 
Had from his wakeful custody purloined 
The guarded gold" 

But the scene has been transfen*ed from the north of Europe to Ethiopia. 

The rest of the fable I cannot trace. 

2 A dissertation on Prester John, and the confusions which transferred 
a Chi'istian prince of Central Asia to Central Africa, will be found in 
M. D'Avezac's preface to Carjpini, in the volume from which we are 

^ For the Eoc see Marco, iii. 35 ; Ihn Batuta (in Lee), p. 222 ; Sindbad 
the Sailor, and Aladdin ! See also Mr. Major's preface to India in the 
Fifteenth Century. 

^ " Etiam ct mcdulld." -'> " I stud ales"! 



it is said, is of such fierceness that it will kill an elephant, 
nor can it be captured except by a virgin girl. All the 
parts of that creature are of wonderful virtue, and the whole 
of them good for medicine. 

5. There are other animals also of very divers species : 
thus, there is one like a cat, whose sweat is of such good 
odour that it surpasses all the other scents in the world, and 
that sweat is thus collected. When it sweats it rubs itself 
on a certain wood, and there [the sweat] becomes coagulated; 
then men come and collect it, and carry it away.^ 

6. Between this India and Ethiopia is said to be, towards 
the east, the terrestrial paradise ; for from those parts come 
down the four rivers of Paradise, which abound exceedingly 
in gold and gems. 

7. There be serpents with horns, and some with precious 


8. The men of that land are very black, pot-bellied, 
fat, but short ; having thick lips and squab.nose, overhang- 
ing forehead, and hideous countenances, whilst they go 
altogether naked. 

9. I have seen many of them. They hunt the most savage 
beasts, such as lions, ounces, and leopards, and most dreadful 
serpents ; wild men they be, wild against wild beasts ! 

10. In this India is found embar, which is like wood, 
and exceeding fragrant, and is called gemfna marina, or the 
Treasure of the Sea.^ 

1 Viverra Indica, the civet cat, seems to be found over a great part of Asia 
and Afi-ica. The perfume is secreted fi'om very peculiar glands, existing in 
both sexes ; and in North Africa, where the animals are kept for the pur- 
pose, the secretion is scraped from the pouch with an iron spatvila, about 
twice a week (Penny Cyclop.). But the text is confii-med by Sii- E. Ten- 
nent, who says that the Tamils in Northern Ceylon, who also keep the 
animal for its musk, coUect this from the wooden bars of the cage, on 
which it rubs itself {Nat. Hist. Ceylon, p. 32). 

2 It is a Ceylonese story, according to Tennent, that the cobra's stomach 
sometimes contains a stone of inestimable price. The cerastes or horned 
adder is now well known. 

3 Ambergris, a substance found chiefly in warm cHmates, floating on the 


11. There also be certain animals like an ass, but with 
transverse stripes of black and white, such as that one stripe 
is black and the next white. These animals be wonderfully 

12. Between this India and India the Greater, are said to 
be islands of women only, and of men only, such that the 
men cannot live long in the islands of the women, and vice 

13. But they can live there for some x or xv days and 
cohabit ; and when the women produce male children they 
send them to tJie men, and when female children they retain 

14. There are many other different islands in which are 
men having the heads of dogs, but their women are said to 
be beautiful.- I cease not to marvel at the great variety of 
islands that there be. 

surface of tlie sea or tlirown on tlie coasts. It was formerly believed to 
be the exudation of a tree, but is now considered to be a morbid animal 
concretion, having been found in tbe intestinal canal of the sperm wbale. 
It is found usually in small pieces, but some times in lumps of fifty to one 
hundred pounds weight. The best comes from Madagascar, Surinam, 
and Java. It is opaque, of a bright grey colour, softish, and when rubbed 
or heated exhales an agreeable odour. It is inflammable ; and is used as 
a perfume. {Penny Cyclop, and Macculloch' s Commercial Dictionary.) 

1 This strange myth is in Marco Polo (Pai't iii. c. 23). He represents 
the islands to be " full five hundred miles out at sea," south of Mekran. 
The people of Sumatra believe that the inhabitants of Engano, a small 
island south of Bencoolen, are all females, and, like the mares of ancient 
story, are impregnated by the wind. (Marsden's Sumatra.) 

2 This is probably a legendary notice of the Andaman islanders, whom 
Polo represents as "having a head, teeth, and jaws like those of a mastiff 
dog" (iii. c. 16). And Ibn Batuta, describing the people of " Barah- 
nakar" (under which name he seems to have mixed up the stories of the 
Andamans which he had heard, with his experience of some port on the 
main at which he had touched on his way from Bengal to Sumatra), says, 
" Their men are of the same form with ourselves, except that their mouths 
are like those of dogs; hut the women have mouths like other folks" {Lee's 
Trans., p. 198). The stories of the Andaman islanders are as old as 
Ptolemy, whose Agmatce (compare Polo's Angaman) and adjacent islands, 
they doubtless are. Till Dr. Mouat's account, just published, we had 
little more knowledge of them than these 1800-year-old legends gave us, 
and even now we do not know much, near as they are to Calcutta. 


15. Let this suffice about India Tertia and the islands for 
the present. 



1. I have been in the Greater Arabia, but can tell little, 
except that there grow there choice incense and myrrh. 

2. The natives of this Arabia are all black, very crafty 
and lean, with voices like that of a little boy. They dwell 
in caverns and holes on the ground : they eat fish, herbs, 
and roots, and nothing else.^ 

3. This Arabia hath very great deserts, pathless and 

very dry. 

4. Of Ethiopia, I say that it is a very great land, and a 
very hot. There are many monsters there, such as gryphons 
that guard the golden mountains which be there. Here, too, 
be serpents and other venomous beasts, of vast size and 
venomous exceedingly. 

5. There, too, are very many pretious stones. The lord 
of that land I believe to be more potent than any man in 
the world, and richer in gold and silver and in pretious 
stones. He is said to have under him fifty-two kings, rich 
and potent. He ruleth over all his neighbours towards the 
south and the west. 

6. In this ^Ethiopia are two burning mountains, and be- 

1 He had probably, during bis voyages in tbe Persian Gulpb, touched 
at some point of the north-east of Ai-abia, where WeUsted notices the 
peciiHar wHdness and low civiHzation of the people, "of a daj^ker hue 
than the common race of Arabs ;" " the greater number residing in caves 
and hoUows ;" "theii- principal food dates and salt fish, rice being nearly 
unknown to them ;" whHst they testified as much suiisrise at the sight of 
looking-glasses, watches, etc., as could have been exhibited by the veriest 
savage" of New Holland. {WellstecVs Travels in Arabia, i. 241-2.) 


tween them a mountain of gold. The people of the country- 
are all Christians, but heretics. I have seen and known 
many folk from those parts. 

7. To that emperor the Soldan of Babylon giveth every 
year 500,000 ducats^ of tribute as 'tis said. 

8. I can tell nothing more of Ethiopia, not having been 



1. Of the Great Tartar, I relate what I have heard from 
trustworthy persons ; to wit, that he is very rich, very just, 
and very generous. He hath under him four realms as big 
as the realm of France, and well peopled too. In his domin- 
ions every person who cannot get a livelihood, may, an he 
will, have victual and raiment from that lord, all the days 
of his life.^ 

2. In his dominion is current, in place of money, paper 
stamped with black ink, with which can be procured gold, 
silver, silk, gems, and in short all that man can desire.^ 

S. In that empire are idol-temples, and also monasteries 
of men and women as with us ; and they have a choral 
service and sermons just like us ; and the great pontiffs of 
the idols wear red hats and capes like our cardinals. 'Tis 
incredible what splendour, what pomp, what festivity is 
made in the idol sacrifices.^ 

' " Duplarum." 

2 As we say in later times, " The Great Mogul'*. 

3 See the same statement in Marco Polo, i. 29. 

4 As M. Polo says, with a facetiousness unusual in him, " With regard 
to the money of Kambalu, the great Khan is a perfect alchymist, for he 
makes it himself" (i. 26). 

5 From Eubruquis to Pere Hue all travellers in Buddhistic Tartary and 


4. There they burn not their dead ; nor do they bury 
them sometimes for ten years. Some defer this because they 
have not the means to perform the sacrifices and the ob- 
sequies as they would wish. But they keep the body in the 
house, and serve it with food as if it were alive. 

5. The great lords, when they die, are buried with a horse, 
and with one or two of their best beloved slaves alive.^ 

6. In that empire are very great cities, as I have heard 
tell from those who have seen them ; and there is one called 
Hyemo which it taketh a day's journey on horseback to 
cross, by a direct street through the middle of it.- 

7. I have heard that that emperor hath two hundred 
cities under him greater than Toulouse; and I certainly 
believe them to have more inhabitants. 

8. The folk of that empire be marvellously well-man- 
nered, clean, courteous, and liberal withal. 

9. In that empire rhubarb is found, and musk. And 

Thibet have been struck by the extraordinary resemblance of many fea- 
tures of the ecclesiastical system and ritual to those of the Eoman Chiu-ch. 
Father Grueber, in 1661, speaking of the veneration paid to the Lama, 
ascribes it to " the manifest deceits of the devil, who has transferred the 
veneration due to the sole Vicar of Christ to the superstitious worship of 
barbarous nations, as he has also, in his innate malignity, parodied the 
other mysteries of the Chi-istian faith." (In Kircher's China Illustrata.) 
Hue and Gabet say, " The crosier, the mitre, the dalmatica, the cope or 
pluvial (which the Grand Lamas wear in travelling), the double-choired 
liturgy, the psalmody, the exorcisms, the censer . . . the benedictions . . . 
the rosary, the ecclesiastical celibate, the spiritual retreats, the worship 
of saints ; fasts, processions, holy water ; in all these numerous parti- 
culai's do the Buddhists coincide with us." The cardinal's red hat among 
the Lamas is a modern fact. (Abridged from a paper by the present 
writer in Blackwood for March 1852.) 

1 Ibn Batiita describes how at the funeral of the Great Khan fom- 
female slaves and six favoui-ite Mamluks were buried alive with him, and 
four horses were impaled alive upon the tumulus ; the same being done 
in burying his relatives, according to theii- degree {Lee, p. 220). 

2 This is perhaps the Tai-tar city of lymyl, caUed by the Chinese 
Yemi-li, built by Okkodai, the son of Chengiz Khan, somewhere to the 
east of Lake Balkash. (See D'Avezac's Notice of Travels in Tartary, Recueil 
de Voyages, iv. p. 516) . But the description rather suggests one of the vast 
cities of China, such as Marco Polo describes Kinsai (Hang-choo-foo). 


musk is the navel of a certain wild animal like a goat, from 
which, when it is taken alive, the skin of the navel is cut in 
a round form, and the blood wdiich flows from the wound is 
gathered and put into the said skin, and dried ; and that 
makes the best musk in the world. 

10. There are no other things in that empire that I am 
acquainted with worthy to be described, except the very 
beautiful and noble earthenware, full of good qualities, and 
[which is called] porcelain.^ 

11. When the emperor dies, he is carried by certain men 
with a very great treasure to a certain place, where they 
place the body, and run away as if the devil were after 
them, and others are ready incontinently to snatch up the 
body and bear it in like manner to another place, and so on 
to the place of burial ; and they thus do that the place may 
not be found, and consequently that no one may be able to 
steal the treasure.^ 

1^. Nor is the death of the emperor made known until 
another has been secretly established on the throne by his 
relations and the chiefs.^ 

13. That emperor bestows greater alms than any prince 
or lord in the world. 

14. The people subject to him are for the most part 

' " Vasa pulcherrima et nohilissima atque virtuosa ct porseleta." Perliaps 
" full of good qualities, and of jBne enamelled surface" ? 

2 Cai-pini says tliat there was a certain cemetery for the emperors and 
chiefs, to which their bodies were carried whenever they died, and that 
much treasure was buried with them. No one was allowed to come near 
this cemetery except the keepers (Becueil de Voyages, iv. 631). Marco 
Polo says that if the chief lord died a hundred days journey from this 
cemetery, which was in the Altai mountains, his body must be carried 
thither. Also " when the bodies of the Khans are carried to these moun- 
tains, the conductors put to the sword all the men whom they meet on 
the road, saying, ' Go and serve the great lord in the other world ;' and 
they do the same to the horses, killing also for that purpose the best he 
has" (ii. 45). 

3 This seems from Alcock to be the Japanese practice. Le Eoi est mort, 
vive le Roi ! 



1. Of Caldea I will say not much, but yet what is greatly 
to be wondered at ; to wit, that in a place of that country 
stood Babylon, now destroyed and deserted, where are 
hairy serpents and monstrous animals. In the same place 
also, in the night season, are heard such shoutings, such 
bowlings, such hissings, that it is called Hell. There no 
one would dare to pass a single night, even with a great 
army, on account of the endless terrors and spectres.^ 

2. AVhen I was there, there was seen a tortoise that 
carried five men on its back.^ 

3. Also a two-headed animal, exceeding frightful, which 
dared to wade across the Euphrates, and to chase the in- 
habitants on the other side.^ 

4. Also there be there serpents of such bulk that it is 
horrible to hear tell of; and 1 believe that that land is the 
habitation of demons. 

1 Doubtless our friar had in Ms mind the words of Isaiah, " Wild beasts 
of the desert shall lie there ; and their houses shall be full of doleful 
creatures : and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there. And 
the wild beasts of the island shall cry in their desolate houses, and 
dragons in their pleasant palaces" (xiii, 21-22). 

■^ Probably a hirhah, or water skin, or perhaps several tied together, 
frequently used by the fellahs to cross the Tigris and Euphrates. There 
are no large tortoises in either of those rivers. (B.) 

3 A couple of buffalos, perhaps, which may frequently be seen swimming 
across the stream with only their muzzles and horns above water. (B.) 




Concerning Aran I say nothing at all, seeing that there is 
nothing worth noting.^ 



1. From the land of Mogan came three kings to worship 
the Lord. 

2. And in a certain place there, which is called Bacu, are 
pits dug, whence is extracted and drawn a certain oil, which is 
called naff / and it is a very warm oil of medicinal virtue, 
and it burneth passing well.^ 

^ Eeferring probably to Harran, the Haran of Scripture. Tbe country 
generally being desert, there was little to say about it. (B). 

This chapter is a worthy parallel to that one in Horrehow's History of 
Iceland, " Concerning Owls and Snakes," which Sir Walter Scott quotes 
more than once with such zest. 

2 See ch. ii, parag. 7, ante. 

^ One of the best accounts of Baku is in the Travels of George Forster, 
of the Bengal Civil Service, who came overland from India by the Caspian 
in 1784. There were at that time a considerable number of Multan Hindus 
at Baku, where they had long been established, and were the chief mer- 
chants of Shirwan. The Atish-gah, or Place of Fire, was a square of about 
thirty yards, surrounded by a low wall, and containing many apartments, 
in each of which was a small jet of sulphureous fire issuing through a 
furnace or funnel, " constructed in the form of a Hindu altar." The fire 
was used for worship, cookery, and warmth. On closing the funnel the 
fire was extinguished, when a hollow sound was heard, accompanied by a 
strong and cold current of air. Exclusive of these there was a large jet 
from a natm-al cleft, and many small jets outside the wall, one of which 
was used by the Hindus for burning the dead. 

The whole country round Baku has at times, according to Kinneir, 
the appearance of being enveloped in flame, and during moonlight nights 
in November and December a bright blue light is observed to cover the 
whole western range. My friend Colonel Patrick Stewart, who was lately 




Of the Caspian Hills I say that there they sacrifice sheep 
upon a cross, and they call themselves Christians, though 
they are not so, and know nothing of the faith. ^ Among 
those mountains are more than fifteen different nations. 

for some days at Baku, tells me that it is often possible to " set the sea 
on fire", i.e., the gaseous exhalations on the sui-face. He says the Hindus 
are now only two or three, one of whom, a very old man, had lost the 
power of speaking his native tongue. 

The quantity of naphtha procured in the plain near the city is enor- 
mous. Some of the wells are computed to give from 1000 to 1500 pounds 
a day. It is discriminated as black and white. The white naphtha ap- 
pears to be used chiefly as a remedy for allaying pains and inflammations. 
The flat roofs of Baku are covered with the black naphtha, and it is made 
into balls with sand as a fuel. (See Forster's Journey from Bengal to Eng- 
land, London, 1798 ; and Macdonald Kinneir's Geog. Memoir of the Persian 
Empire, p, 359.) 

From Harthausen we learn that the Atish-gah or A.tish-jah has been 
altered since Forster's time. The flame now issues from a central opening, 
and from four cii-cumjacent hollow pillars within the temple, which is a 
building of a triangular form, and of about one hundred and ninety paces 
to the side, erected by a Hindu merchant in the present century. The 
flame is described as being about four feet high, bright, and "waving 
heavily to and fro against the dark sky, a truly marvellous and spectral 
sight." The Atish-gah of Baku appears to be the " Castle of the Fire- 
worshippers" spoken of by Polo (ii. 9). He says they revere the fire " as 
a god, and use it for biu-ning all their sacrifices ; and when at any time 
it goes out, they repair to that well, where the fire is never extinguished, 
and from it bring a fresh supply." 

1 Some trace of the practice here alluded to is to be found among the 
Nestorians. " Once a year there is a kind of Agap(^ to commemorate the 
departed, in all the mountain villages. For days previous such families 
as intend to contribute to the feast are busily engaged in preparing their 
offerings. These consist of lambs and bread, which are brought into the 
church-yard ; and after the people have communicated of the holy Eu- 
charist, the priest goes forth, cuts several locks of wool off the fleeces, and 
throws them into a censer. Whilst a deacon swings this to and fi'o in 
presence of the assembled guests, the priest recites the following anthem : 

" ' The following is to be said over the Lambs that are slain 

IN sacrifice for the dead : — 

" ' When ye present oblations and offer pure sacrifices, and bring lambs 



Of Georgiana [I have to say] that it is entirely like our 
country; and all the people are Christians and warriors.^ 



1. Now I will mention in a brief statement the distances 

to be slain, ye should first call the priests, who shall sign them with the 
sign of the cross before they are slain, and say over them these words : 
He was brought as a lamb to the slaughter,' " etc. 

. . . . " ' O Lord, let the oblation which thy servants have offered 
before thee this day be acceptable, as was that of faithful Abraham the 
righteous, who vowed his son as an oblation, and stretched out the knife 
upon his throat, whereupon he saw a lamb hung on a tree like his life-giving 
Lord who was crucified,' " etc. (Bev. G. P. Badger's Nestorians, i. 229.) 

See also Dr. Stanley's account of the cruciform spit used by the Sama- 
ritans in roasting the Paschal lamb, in the notes to his Sermons before the 
Prince of Wales. 

The Yezidis also have some mixture of Christian names in their super- 
stitions, and sacrifice to Christ. Of the Ossetes of the Caucasus also we 
are told that the majority are nominally Christians, but in fact semi- 
pagans, and rarely baptized. They offer sacrifices of bread and flesh in 
sacred groves, and observe the Christian festivals with various sacrifices, 
e. g., a lamb at Easter, a pig on New Year's Day, an ox at Michaelmas, a 
goat at Christmas. Both Georgians and Ai-menians are said still to be 
addicted to the practice of sacrifice in their churches. {Haxthausen's 
Transcaucasia, p. 397.) 

1 " The Georgians are the Christian, the Circassians the Mohammedan, 
cavaliers of the Caucasian countries ; they stand in the same relative 
position as the Goths and Moors of Spain." " The bases and principles 
of the organization and general condition of the Georgian people bore 
great resemblance to those of the Germanic race, comprising a feudal 
constitution, perfectly analogous to the Eomano-Germanic. In this war- 
like country the Christian hierarchy was constituted in a perfectly ana- 
logous manner to the temi^oral feudal state," etc. (Haxthausen, pp. 113, 


of the countries. Know ye, then, that from this place to 
Constantinople 'tis about three thousand miles or more. 

2. From Constantinople to Tanan^ or Tartary is a thou- 
sand miles, going always towards the east, and by sea. 

3. The empire of Persia bcginneth at Trebizond, which is 
a city of the Greeks, situated in the furthest bight of the 
Moorish Sea. And that empire^ extendeth far ; for it in- 
cludeth Lesser Asia, Cilicia,^ Media, Cappadocia, Lycia, 
Greater Armenia, Caldea, Georgiana, part of the Caspian 
Hills and Mogan, — whence came those three kings to 
worship Christ,^ — even to the Iron Gates,^ and all Persia, 
with some part of Lesser India ; so that the empire extend- 
eth across from the Black Sea to the Indian Sea, and so 
great is the distance as to equal Ixxxx days of ordinary 
journey with cattle, or more. 

4. Then Lesser India extendeth four-square over LX 
days' journey, and is entirely level. 

5. But the Greater India extendeth over more than 
CLXX days' journey, excluding the islands, of which there 
be more than XII thousand inhabited, and more than VIII 
thousand uninhabited, as those say who navigate that sea. 
And [this India also] is nearly all a plain. 

6. But the vessels of these Indies be of a marvellous kind. 
For although they be very great, they be not put together 

1 Tana was the name of a place at the mouth of the Don or Tanais, the 
site of an early Venetian factory. 

2 See note (2) page 54. ^ " Cicilia," in orig. 

■* Marco Polo also places the country of the three Magi, Balthazai", 
Gaspar, and Melchior, in this region (ii. 9), as appears from his connecting 
them with the worshipped fire at Baku. Theii* tombs, according to him, 
were in a city called Sava. 

^ The Iron Gates, at the place called by the Persians Der-bend (Dilr- 
band), or the Closed Gate, the capital of Daghestan, and lying in a defile 
between the Caucasvis and the Caspian. The city is traditionally said to 
have been founded by Alexander^ and part of the celebrated wall of Gog 
and Magog, said to have extended from the Black Sea to the Caspian, is 
to be seen here, running over high and almost inaccessible mountains. 
(Kinneir's Pers. Empire, p. 355.) 


with iron, but stitched with a needle, and a thread made of 
a kind of grass. Nor are the vessels ever decked over, but 
open, and they take in water to such an extent that the men 
always, or almost always, must stand in a pool to bale out 
the water. 

7. Cathay is a very great empire, which extendeth over 
more than C days' journey ; and it hath only one lord, 
whereas the case with the Indies is the very opposite, for 
there be therein many kings, many princes, not one of 
whom holdeth himself tributary to another. 

8. And the dominion of ^Ethiopia is great exceedingly ; 
and I believe, and lie not, that the population thereof is, at 
the least, three times that of our Christendom.^ 

9. But other two empires of the Tartars, as I have heard, 
to wit, that which was formerly of Cathay, but now is of 
Osbet, which is called Gatzaria, and the empire of Dua and 
Cayda, formerly of Capac and now of Elchigaday, extend 
over more than CC days' journey.^ 

10. The vessels which they navigate in Cathay be very 

1 One suspects some mistake here. He would seem still to be speaking 
of Cathay, in which case his estimate would have some propriety. 

2 I cannot explain aU these names. But the author's reference is to 
the several empires into which the vast conquests of Chengiz Khan were 
partitioned among his descendants. 1. Cathay, or all the eastern part of 
the empire, including China, with a paramount authority over all, fell to 
Okkodai and his successors, the " Great Khans" or " Great Tartars" of 
our author. 2. Kipchak, or Comania, all the country westward of the 
Ural river, through the south of Eussia, fell eventually to Batu, the 
grandson of Chengiz, whose invasion, penetrating to Silesia and Hun- 
gary, struck terror into Europe. This is the Gatzaria of the text; Khazaria 
being properly the country adjoining the Sea of Azoph, and including the 
Crimea. The expression "now of Osbet" appears to refer to Uzbeg, who 
was Khan of Kipchak from 1313 to 1340. 3. Jagatai (Elchigaday = El 
Jagatai, I suppose) was Transoxiana, lying between the first and second 
empires. It was so called fr'om Jagatai, the son of Chengiz, to whom it 
fell. Kaidu, the grandson of Jagatai, according to Marco Polo, was the 
ruler of this country in the time of that traveller. Dua and Capac I 
cannot explain. 4. Persia. The second and third are of course the 
" other two empires of the Tartars" mentioned in the text. (See 
D'Avezac's " Notice of Old Travels in Tartary in Recueil de Voyages, vol. 
iv. ; and Introduction to ErsMne's Translation of Baber's Memoirs, etc.) 


big, and have upon the ship's hull more than C cabins, and 
with a fair wind they carry X sails, and they are very bulky, 
being made of three thicknesses of plank, so that the first 
thickness is as in our great ships, the second cross-wise, the 
third again long-wise. In sooth, 'tis a very strong affair.^ It 
is true that they venture not far out to sea ; and that Indian 
sea is seldom or never boisterous, and when it does rise to 
such a degree as they deem awfully perilous, it is such 
weather as our mariners here would deem splendid. For 
one of the men of our country would there ('tis no lie), be 
reckoned at sea worth a hundred of theirs and more. 

1 1. Grsecia'-^ also is of great extent, but of how many days' 
journey I wot not. 

12. One general remark I will make in conclusion ; to wit, 
that there is no better land or fairer, no people so honest, no 
victuals so good and savoury, dress so handsome, or manners 
so noble, as here in our own Christendom ; and, above all, 
we have the true faith, though ill it be kept. For, as God is 
my witness, ten times better [Christians], and more charitable 
withal, be those who be converted by the Preaching and 
Minor friars to our faith, than our own folk here, as experi- 
ence hath taught me. 

13. And of the conversion of those nations of India, I say 
this : that if there were two hundred or three hundred good 
friars, who would faithfully and fervently preach the Catholic 
faith, there is not a year which would not see more than X 
thousand persons converted to the Christian faith. 

14. For, whilst I was among those schismatics and unbe- 
lievers, I believe that more than X thousand, or thereabouts, 
were converted to our faith, and because we, being few in 
number, could not occupy, or even visit, many parts of the 

1 See in Ibn Batxda, p. 172, a description of the great CMnese junks, 
trading at that time to Malabar. It is remarkable that the Ai-abian tra- 
veller uses literally the word junTc, showing that we got it thi-ough the 
Ai-ab mariners, though ultimately from the Malay ajong, a ship. 

2 Sic in orig. Qu. Arabia ? 


land, many souls (wo is me !) have perished, and exceeding 
many do yet perish for lack of preachers of the Word of the 
Lord. And 'tis grief and pain to hear how, through the 
preachers of the perfidious and accursed Saracens, those sects 
of the heathen be day by day perverted. For their preachers 
run about, just as we do, here, there, and everywhere over 
the whole Orient, in order to turn all to their own mis- 
creance.^ These be they who accuse us, who smite us, who 
cause us to be cast into durance, and who stone us ; as I in- 
deed have experienced, having been four times cast into 
prison by them, I mean the Saracens. But how many times 
I have had my hair plucked out, and been scourged, and 
been stoned, God himself knoweth and I, who had to bear 
all this for my sins, and yet have not attained to end my life 
as a martyr for the faith, as did four of my brethren. For 
what remaineth God's will be done ! Nay, five Preaching 
Friars and four Minors were there in my time cruelly slain 
for the Catholic faith. 

Wo is me that I was not with them there ! 

15. I believe moreover that the king of France might 
subdue the whole world to his own dominion and to the 
Christian faith, without the aid of any other. 



I have seen an island called Chios, where groweth mastick 
in very great abundance; nor do those trees when planted any- 
where else in the whole world produce mastick. Mastick is 
the gum of a very noble tree. That island was held by a 
very noble Genoese, by name Martin Zachary, a most worthy 

1 It was just about this time that a great proselytizing energy was de- 
veloped by Islam in the far east, extending to Sumatra and Java. 


sea captain, who slew or took more than ten thousand Turks. 
But, alackaday! the rascally emperor of Constantinople, 
Greek that he was, got possession of the island by treason, 
a thing most deeply to be lamented ; and all the more that 
the captain was taken in person, and made a prisoner. 



1. I was also in Turkey, in a certain camp on the coast 
of the main, held by a noble Genoese, by name Andreolo 
Cathani, who hath with him only fifty-two knights- and four 
hundred foot soldiers. He doth much scathe to the Turks. 
And there he himself maketh alum, without which no cloth 
can be properly dyed ; and 'tis made in a marvellous way, 
nor do I believe that the art could have been invented by 
human ingenuity, but rather by the Holy Spirit.=^ For thus 
it is : stones be taken from under the ground, not stones of 
any kind, but such as be specially suitable, for few be found 
of that kind. And these stones be baked like bricks or 
pottery, and that in great quantity and for many days, and 
with a most potent fire. The stones be afterwards placed on 
a great platform, and water is poured upon them, and this 
two or three times a day for a month continuously, so that the 
stones become like [slaked] lime. Afterwards they be placed 
in great caldrons with water, and that which falleth to the 
bottom is extracted with great iron ladles. Then four-square 
tanks of plaster are prepared, numerous and large, and into 
these the water from the caldrons is poured, and there 
gradually taketh place a precipitation like crystal, and that 
is choice alum.^ 

1 Asiatic Tm-key, of course, at tliis date. '^ Or horsemen. 

3 The good Mar was doubtless thinking of Exodus xxxv. 30-31. 

■> According to Beckman, the ancients were not acquainted with real 


2. In this Turkey be the VII Churches to which wrote 
the Blessed John in the Apocalypse, who also ordered a 
sepulchre to be dug for him in Ephesus, whereinto he 
entered and was seen no more. But I will tell one very 
marvellous thing concerning that excavation, as I heard it 
from a certain devout religious person,* who was there and 
heard it with his own ears. From time to time is heard 
there a very loud sound, as of a man snoring, and yet is 
the sepulchre void.^ 

S. This Turkey, which is called Asia Minor, is inhabited 
by the Turks, and by a few schismatic Greeks and Arme- 
nians. Which Turks be most rascally Saracens, and capital 
archers withal, and the most warlike and perfidious of all 

4. The country is very fertile, but uncultivated ; for the 
Turks trouble not themselves.^ 

alum. He says it was discovered by the orientals, wlio established works 
in the thirteenth century in Syria (apparently at Eukka or Eochha, east 
of Aleppo, whence the name of Boch-alum, stUl in use). The best now 
comes from the neighbourhood of Civita Vecchia. The method of manu- 
facture in England and Scotland is to mix broken alum slate with fuel, 
and to set it on fire. When combustion is over the residual mixture is 
lixiviated with water ; a solution of the earthy salt being obtained, potash 
salts are added, and crystals of alum are the result. (Penny Cyclop, and 
Macculloch's Comm. Diet.) 

1 A curious instance of the persistence of legend in the face of Scripture. 
See John, xxi, 23. 

2 " Quia Turd nan multum curant." Some time ago a foreign ambas- 
sador at the Sublime Porte told the Grand Vizier that there were three 
enemies who would eventually destroy the Turkish empire, viz : BaJcalum, 
(We shaU see;) In-shaa-Alldh, (If it please God;) and Yarun sdbdh 
(to-morrow morning). (B.) 

For this and several other very apt notes which I have marked with the 
letter B, I have to thank Mr. Badger's kindness. 



Abgarus of Edessa, 5 
Aboriginal races of India, 35 
Abraham ; Mussul, legend of, xi ; 

birthplace of, 9 
Abu-Zaid-al-Hasan, see Reinaud. 
Abyssinia, the Middle India of Polo, 

11. See Ethiopia. 
Adder, horned, 43 
^Ethiopia, 42, 43, 45 ; Population of, 

Afghan manners, 10 
Afi'ica, South-Eastern (India Tertia), 

Agmatse of Ptolemy, 44 
Ahar, city of Armenia, 9 
Ainslie's Materia Medica, 13 
Aladdin, 42 
Alcock's Japan, 48 
Alms of Great Khan, 48 
Altai mountains, 48 
Alum, manufacture of, 57 
Amadou, 17 
Ambergris, 43 
Andaman islanders, 31, 44 
Andra (Telingana), 39 
Andreolo Cathani, 57 
Angaman, 44 

Aniba, Amba (the Mango), 14 
Animals of India, 12, 18, 26, 35, 36, 38 

of India Tertia (S. E. Africa), 

42, 43, 44 

Anthropophagi, 31 

Ants, Indian, of Herodotus, 29; 

white, 36 
Arab sailors' yarns, xvii 
Arabes, Voyages des, see Reinaud. 
Arabia, the Greater, 45, 55 
Aran, concerning, 50 
Ararat, 3, 5 
Araxes, 4, 5, 7 
Archipelago, Indian, 30 

Crawfiird's Dictionary of the, 

27, 28, 31 

Arguri (village on Ai*arat), 4 

Ariana, 11 

Ariena (Pliny's name for jack -fruit), 

Arimaspian, 42 

Ark, legends of the, 3, 4 

Armenia the Greater, 3 et seq., 11, 53 

Armenians, Schismatic, 5, 58 ; their 
sacrifices, 52 

Aii-ocarpus, see Jack. 

Asher's Benjamin of Tudela, 22 

Asia Minor, 11, 53, 58 

Asses ; wild, 9 ; in India, 12 

Athenaeum referred to, 31 

Atish-gah of Baku, 50, 51 

Atlas, of India, xiii ; Keith John- 
stone's, xiv ; Steiler's, 6 

Ava, Mission to, 39 

AvdaU's Trans, of Chamich's Hist, 
of Armenia, 5, 7 

Azerbijan, 6 

Babee, Erskine's, 54 

Babylon, deserted, 49 ; Sultan of 
(Egyptian), 46 

Bacu (Baku), 50, 51, 53 

Badakshan, 9 

Badger, Eev. G. P., v, viii, xi, xviii, 
58 ; his Nestorians, 51 

BaldeUo Boni's ed. of Polo, xiii 

Balkash, Lake, 47 

Banyan trees, 17, 18, 19 

Baptism of converts, 23, 24 

Barahnakai*, 44 

Barbosa, Odoardo, xiv, xvi, 22, 33, 40 

Barca and Papa (names of Jack- 
fruit), 13, 14 

Barcarian mountains (Barchal 
Dagh), 6 

Baroch, vi 

Barrington, Sir Jonah, 33 

Bartholomew, Apostle, in Armenia, 

Batigala (Batcole), 40, 41 



Battas^ BattakS;, tlieir cannibalism, 

Bats, 19, 29 
Batu Khan, 54 
Beasts, wild, see Animals. 
Beckman's Hist, of Inventions, 57 
Bed-kisht (sp. of manna), 8 
Belluri (sp. of palm), 17 
Benares visited by Conti, xiv ; popu- 
lation of, 8 
Benjamin of Tudela, xv, 11, 22, 28 
Bhagwan, 24 
Bibliqtli. Hist. Vetus, vii 
Birala, see Belluri. 
Bii-d, wailing-, 37 ; devil, ih. ; like a 

kite, 36 ; enormous, 42 
Birds of India, 19, 28 
Bisnagar, king of, 40 
Black Sea, 53 
Blackness of Indians, 12, 25, 26; of 

Afi'icans, 43 
Blackwood's Mag., 47 
Bloqui, an Indian fruit (Jack), 13, 14 
Boats stitched, 16, 53 
Bodies kept long, 47 
Boils, 14 
Bokhara, 10 
Bollandists, vii 
Borassus flabelliformis, 16 
Botanic Garden, Calcvitta, 18 ; 

Kandy, 20 
Brahmans, 22 
Brazil-wood, xiii ; history of the 

name, 27 
Breadfruit, 13 
Briggs's Ferishta, 23 
Buchanan, Dr. F., his Mysore, 17 
Buddhist Triad, 25 ;— rites, 46 
Buds, Cassia, 28 
Buffaloes, 49 

Burial-place of St. John, 58 
Burma, 39 

Bui'nes, Sir Alex., quoted, 9, 10, 12 
Burning; of the dead, 20, 47; of 

widows, 20 
mountains, 45 


Cago, a port of Persia, v 

Cai-colam or Kain-kulam, xiv, 40 

Call, a city near C. Comorin, xvi, 40 

Calabria, 1, 2 

Calcatix (crocodile), 19 

Calcutta Botanic Garden, 18 

Caldea, 11, 49, 43 

Calicut, xiv, xv, 40 

Cambay, 6 

Cambodia, xvi, 11, 33, 37, 38, 41 

Camels, 12 

Cananore, xiv 

Canara, 32, 40 

CaneUa selvatica, 22 

Cannibals, 31 

Canopus, 34 

Capac, 54 

Cappadocia, 11, 53 

Carbuncles and di-agons, 42 

Cardinal's hats used l^y idol pontifi's, 

46, 47 
Carelessness, Turkish, 58 
Carnatic, Mahom. conquest of, 23 
Carobs, 21 
Carpini quoted, 48 
Caryota Urens, 17 
Caspian Sea, 7; — Hills, 6, (and tribes) 

51, 52 
Cassia Fistula, 21, 22 

Lignea, 22, 28 

Laurus, 28 

buds, ib. 

Cathay, vi, 54. See China and 

Catholic rites. Pagan semblances of, 

46, 47 
Cats ; winged, 29 ; civet, 43 
Caucasus, 7 ; see also Caspian. 
Cayda, 54 

Cemetery of Great Khans, 48 
Cerastes, 43 
Ceratonia Siliqua, 21 
Ceylon, xii, 37 ; mentioned by Jor- 

danus, 28, 30, 41 

Sir J. E. Tennent's, iii, 13, 30 

Natural History of, 

20, 29, 36, 37, 43 
Chaldees, Ur of the, 9 
Chaldeia (Chaldsea), see Caldea. 
Chamich's History of Armenia, see 

Champa, see Cambodia. 
Chaqui, a fruit of India (the Jack), 

Character ascribed to the Hindus, 

Chardin quoted, viii, 5, 7 
Chengiz Khan, 47, 54 
China, ships of, xiv, xv, 54; cities 

of, 47; porcelain, 48. See also 

Tartar and Cathay. 
China Illustrata, Kfrcher's, 47 
Chios, Island of, 56 
Chopa, 41 

Choral Service of Buddhists, 46 
Chi-istendom, advantages of, enu- 
merated by Jord., 55 
Chi-istians ; in India, vi, vii, xi, xii, 

23, 55 ; in Persia, viii, 8, 9 ; in 

Armenia, 5, 6 ; in vEthiopia, 46 ; 

selfstyled in Caspian HiUs, 51 



in Per- 
4, 5 

Clii'istian mysteries, Pagan sem 
blances of, 47 

Clu-istopherns A' Costa, 14 

Chi'oniclc ascribed to Jordanus, ix 

Chronology, Hindu Mythical, 25 

Chnlo.n, xv 

Churches ; in India, vii, 23 ; 
sia, \dii, 8, 9 ; in Ai-meniaj 

The vii, 58 

Cilicia, 53 

Cinnamon, 22, 27, 28 

Cii'cassians, 52 

Cities of the Great Tartar, 47 

Civet cat, 43 

Clove trees, 31 

Cobra, 19, 43 

Cochin, xiv, 35 

Coco-nut-palm described, 15, 16 

Cockatrice, 19 

Coilpatam, 40 

Coil-, 16 

Coilon, XV, xvi, see Columhum and 

Coincidences between mediaBval tra- 
vellers, xvii 

Colam, Coulam, see Columhum 

meaning- of, xiii ; sundry places 

named, xiv 

Pandarani, xiv, 40 

Coloen, xvi, see Columhum 
Columbo in Ceylon, xii 
Columbum, the see of Jordanus 

(Quilon), V, vi; the Chi-istians of, 

vii, viii, x ; identification of, xii- 

xvii ; foundation of, xiv, 29 ; king 

of, 39, 40 
Comania, 54 
Comari (Comorin), xiii 
Comorin, Cape, xiii, xvi, 33, 40 
Conengue, v 
Constantine, 5 
Constantinople, 53, 57 
Conti, Nicolo de', xiv, xv, xvi, 25, 31 ; 

division of India according to, 11 
Conversion; of Pagans and Saracens, 

23, 24, 55 ; of schismatics, 5, 6, 8, 

9, 55 
Cooley, W. D., Trans, of Panot's 

Ararat, 3 
Coorg, Eajas of, 40 
Coquebert-Montbret (French editor) , 

iii, iv, V, vi, vii, viii, xii, xvii 
Corcliner's Ceylon, 13 
Coromandel, xiii 
Corypha umbraculifera, 30 
Cote-coulam, xiv 
Cows, see Oxen 
Crawfurd, John, Dictionary of the 

Indian Archipelago, 27, 28, 31 
Malay Dictionary, 22 

Crimea, 54 

Crocodile described, 19 

Cross, Sheep sacrificed on a, 51 

Crows, 19 

Cubebs, 31 

Curzon's Armenia, 5 

Cyncilim, 40 

Cyrus (Km*) river, 7 

Daghestan, 53 

D'Anville, vi, xiii 

Date-palms in India, 11 

Daulatabad, 39 

Daumghan, v 

D'Avezac, M., quoted, v, viii, ix, 42, 
47, 54 

Day and Night, length of, 12, 34 

Dead, disposal of, 20, 21, 47 

Sea in Armenia (Urumia), 6 

Declinations, quaint estimate of, 34 

Dekkan, Mahom. conquest of, 39 

Delhi, 20 

Demetrius, a Franciscan martyr in 
India, xii 

Demons in Chaldaea, 49 

Deogii'i, rajas of, 39 

Derbend, 53 

Devil speaketh in India, 37 ; — bkd, 

Dew absent, 8 ; heavy, 12 

Diamonds, 20 

Dictionary, Macculloch's Commer- 
cial, 27, 44, 57 j Crawford's Malay, 
22 ] Crawford's, of the Indian Ar- 
chipelago, 27, 28, 31 ; Smith's, of 
the Bible, 4; Smith's, of Greek 
and Eoman Geography, 6 ; Eichard- 
son's Persian, 17 

Dioclesian's Persecution, 5 

Distances of eastern countries, 52 

Dog-headed folk, 44 

Dominicans, or Preaching Friars, v, 
vi, X, xii, 5, 6, 55 

Doms, Domra, a low caste, 21 

Dragons, 5, 41 

Dravidian races, 35 

Dress of Hindus, 32 

Driu-y, Capt. H., Useful Plants of 
India, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 22, 28 

Dua, 54 

Dubois, Abbe, quoted 21, 35 

Dumbri, see Dom. 

Dyo or Diu, x 

Earthquakes, in Greece, 2 ; at Ara- 
rat, 4 
Eating, Asiatic habits of, 10 
Echmiazin, 3, 5 
Egripos, 2 
Elchigaday, 54 


El-Cathif, XV 
Electram, 23 
Elephant, not found in Lesser India, 

12; described, 26; story of, 29; 

extensive use of in Champa, 37 ; 

their wars, 38; mode of capture, 

38, 39 ; of Ceylon, 41 ; carried by 

the Eoc, 42 
El-Kat, Port of the P. Gulph, v 
Elphinstone's Hist, of India, 22, 

Embar f Ambergris), 43 
Emperor, Persian (Tartar), 6 ; of 

^Ethiopia, 42, 45, 46 ; of Cathay, 

46, 47, 48 ; of Constantinople, 

Empire, Persian (Tartar), 6, 52, 54; 

Great Tartar (Cathay), 46, 47, 48 

53 ; — several Tartar, 54 
Engano, legend of, 44 
Ephesus, 58 
Erivan, 7 

Erskine's Baber, 54 
Euphrates, v, 49 
Euripus, flux and reflux, 2 
Exodus quoted, 57 

Facetiousness of M. Polo, excep- 
tional, 46 

Fandaraina, 40 

Fans, 17 

Faro of Messina, 1 

Female line, inheritance in, 32 

Ferrier's travels, 9 

Fertility of Lesser India, 12; of 
Turkey, 58 

Fighting in India, 20 

Fiji Islands, 32 

Fire at Baku, 50, 51, 53 

worshippers, 21 ; castle of the, 


Flandrina, 40 

Flying foxes, 19 

squirrels, 29 

Food of Lesser India, 12 

Footsteps, mysterious, 37 

Forest tribes, see Wild 

Forks, no new invention, 10 

Forster's, George, travels, 50 

Fowls, Indian, 20 

Foxes in India, 29 ; flying, 19 

France, king of, might subdue the 
world, 56 

Francis of Pisa, vii 

Franciscan or Minor friars, v, vi, ix, 
X, 5, 55 

Friars, see Franciscan and Dominican 

Fruits of India, 13-17 

Funeral rites, Tartar, 47, 48 

Gabet, Pere, 47 

Gallus Sonneratii, 20 

Galofaro (Charybdis), 2 

Gatzaria, 54 

Gedrosia, 11 

Geographer in Ramusio, see ;Sfom- 

mario, 24 
Gemma Marina, 43 
Genoese, vi, 56, 57 
Georgiana, 52, 53 
Georgian schismatics, 9 
Ginger, xv, 21, 27 
Girasal and Chambasal, 13 
God, the one recognized by Hindus, 

Gog and Magog, wall of, 53 
Gokchai, Lake, 7 
Gold, in Persia, 9; in India, 23; 

Water making, 29; dust for money, 

Golden mountains, 45, 46 
sands, 42 

Golkonda, Kingdom of, 39 

Gracia ab Horto, 14 

Grapes, 4, 15 

Greece, 2, 11, 55 

Greeks, 9, 56, 58 

Gregory, St., Ap. of Armenia, 5 

Grueber, Father, 47 

Grus Cinerea, 37 

Gryphons, 42, 45 

Guz (manna), 8 

Haklutt, ix, 31, 33 

Hamilton's ( W.) Desc. of Hindostan, 

Hardv^ricke, General, 29 

Harran or Haran, 50 

Hauda, 26 

Haxthausen's Transcaucasia, 4, 50, 

Heavenly bodies, 35 

HeU, Babylon caUed, 49 

Heraclius, 7 

Heretics, 46 

Herodotus, xviii, 29, 31, 42 

Hili, a port of Malabar, xv 

Hindus ; decent eating, 10 ; black- 
ness, 12, 25,26; high character of, 
22 ; their toleration, 24 ; sacrifices, 
24 ; idols, ib. ; reverence for oxen, 
25 ; dress, 31 ; inheritance, 32 ; 
self-immolation, 32; wars, 20; at 
Baku, 50, 51 

Hispaniola, 32 

Honey -jack, 14 

Horrebow's Iceland, 50 

Horses not used in Lesser India ace. 
to Jordanus, 12 ; sacrifice of, 47 



HortiTS Maln.bavicus, see Rhcedt 

Hue, PC'i-e, Uu 1.7 

Hulakii, vi, (5 

Hiinawiu', 40 

Hunters, Negro, 43 

Hurons, 32 

Hushyiirpur, banyan at, 18 

Hj^emo, city of, 47 

lACA (jack-fruit), 13, 14 

Ibn Batuta, travels of, iii ; men- 
tions Columbo, xii ; Kaulani, xv ; 
coincidences with Jordanus, xvii ; 
his desc. of jack -fruit, 14 ; mango, 
14 ; coco-palm, 15 ; pepper, 28 ; 
his name of Ceylon, 28 ; mentions 
great ruby, 30 ; his singular story 
of self -immolation, 33; his mention 
of Maabar, 39 ; of Hunawui* ; of 
Fandaraina, 40 ; of the E,oc, 42 ; 
of the Andaman stories, 44 ; of the 
Great Khan's funeral rites, 47 ; of 
Chinese junks in India, 54 

Ichthyophagi Troglodytes of Arabia, 

Idols, Indian, 24, 32, 33 ; processions 
of, 33 ; sacrifices to, 24, 32 ; tem- 
ples of, destroyed by Saracens, 23; 
temples of, in Tartary, 46 

India, mediaeval divisions of, 11 

the Lesser, 10 ; described, 11 

and seq., 53 

the Greater, 26 and seq., 53 

First and Second, 11, 12 

Middle, 11 

Tertia, 11 ; described, 41 &seq. 

Ultra Gangem, 41 

' wild races of, 35 

kings in, 39 

islands of, 28, 30, 31, 44, 53 

vessels of, 16, 53 

India in the fifteenth centiu-y, Ma- 
jor's, xiv, 42. See also Conti 

India rubber trees, 20 

Infernal, Tribes characterized as, 35 

Inheritance, singular custom of, 32 

Insects, 36 

Iron in India, 23 

Iron-gates, the, 53 

Irrigation at Tabriz, 8 

Isaiah's prophecy of Babylon, 49 

Islands of India, their number, 28, 
53 ; Ceylon, 28, 30 ; island having 
marvellous water and tree, 29 ; of 
naked people, 30 ; of Java, 30, 41; 
of women only and men only, 44; 
of dog-headed folk, 44 

Ivory, 38 

lymyl, a Tartar city, see Hyemo 

Jack-fuuit, 13, 14 

Jacobites, 9 

Jacobus, Armenian martyr, 5 

Jagatai Khan, 54 

Jaggeri (palm-sugar), 16 

.lames of Padua, a Franciscan mar- 
tyr, xi 

Java (the Archipelago), its wonders, 
30, 31, 33 ; kings in, 41, 55 

Jews, black, xv ; in Persia, 9 

John, St., legend of, 58 

Prester, 42, 45 

XXII, Pope, vii, x 

de Core, archbishop of Sulta- 

nia, vii 

Jordanus, his bii-thplace, iv ; dates 
in his life, v, vii ; letters, v, vi ; 
first goes to India, vi ; named 
bishop of Columbum, vii ; time of 
wi'iting this book, viii ; Clu'onicle 
ascribed to him, ix ; his Latinity, 
xvii; his coincidences with other 
travellers, xvii 

Josephus, 4 

Jude the Apostle, in Ai-menia, 4, 5 

Jungle fowl, 20 

Junks, Chinese, xv, 55 ; origin of the 
name, 55 

Kaidu Khan, 54 

Kain-Kulam, xiv, 40, 41 

Kambalu, 46 

Karrack, v 

Kars, 6 

Kasias, 32 

Kaulam, xv (see Golumhum) 

Kayane, vii-gin martyr, 5 

Keatinge, Col. R. H., 33 

Kesmacoran of Polo, 11 

Khan, Great, see Tartar 

Kharej or Kharg, see Karrack 

Khazaria, 54 

Khor-vii-ab, convent of, 5 

Khounouk, v 

Khilji sovereigns of Delhi, 23 

Kic (for Kir, bitumen), 10 

Killing Oxen capital, 25 

Kine alone used in Lesser India, 12 

Kings in India; then- cbess, 32; some 

of them detailed, 39 

52 under Prester John, 45 

The Three, 53 

King, Account of Cambodia by, 38 
Kinneii-, Macdonald, quoted, 7, 8, 

50, 53 
Kipchak, 54 
Kirbah (Waterskin), 49 
Kirby and Spence, quoted, 36 
Kii'cher's China Illustrata, 47 



Kite, Rufous, 36 
Kulang (sp. of crane), 37 
Kulam. See Columhum, etc. 
Male, xiv. 

Lada, 22 

Lake Urumia, 6 

Sewan, 7 

Lakkaclives, 28 

Lamas, 47 

Lambs, Nestorian Sacrifice of, 51 

Lapis Lazuli, 9 

Latinity of Jordanus, xvii. 

Latter Days, Mahom. notions re- 
specting, 23 

Leake's Travels in Greece, 2 

Leaves ; perennial, 18 ; gigantic, 29, 

Le Blanc, Vincent, 40 

Lee, Dr. S., 14. See Ihn Batuta. 

Lemons, sweet and sour, 15 

Leopards, 18, 43 

Liber de ^tatibus, v. 

Liberality of Great Tartar, 46 

Linga, Lingam, 40, 41 

Lingayet sect, 39, 40 

Lingvia, King of Mobebar and of 
Columbum, 39, 41 

Linscboten's Voyages, 13, 14, 21, 
22, 28 

Lions, 18, 43 

Locusts, 20 

Lodovicus Eomanus, 14 

Lord, Dr. P., quoted, 12 

Lories, 29 

Lucknow, population of, 8 

Lycia, 53 

Lynx, 18 

Maabar, a region of tlie Coromandel 
coast, xiii, 32, 39, 41 

Maarazia, a city of India (Benares), 

Maccullocb's Commercial Diction- 
ary, 27, 44, 58 

Mace, 31 

Mackenzie Collections, xiv. 

Madagascar, 32 

Madras, population of referred to, 8 

Magi, 53 

Mahmud of Gbazni, 23 

Mahratta, 39, 41 

Major's India in the 15th century, 
xiv, 42. See Conti. 

Malabar ; Ports of, xiv-xvi ; Chinese 
Trade with, xv, 54 ; Kings in, 39 ; 
Mahom. Conquest of, 23 

Malayalim names of Jack -fruit, 13, 14 

Mandevill, Sir John, xv ; his lies, 40 

Mangalove, 11, 40 

Mango, 14 

Manna, 8, 10 

Manners ; of Persians, 9, 10 ; of 
Hindus, 10, 12, 20, 22; of Tartar 
Empire, 47 

Maragha, vi. 

Marogo (Maragha), v, vi. 

Marsden's Sumatra, 44 

Martin Zachary, Captain, 56 

Martyrdoms ; of Missionaries, vi, ix, 
xi, 56 ; Sundry in Armenia, 4, 5, 7 

Mastick, 56 

Masudi, vi. 

Media, 53 

Mediterranean, Adm. Smyth's, 2 

Mekran, 11 

Melibaria of Conti (Malabar), xvi. 

Men only and women only, and Is- 
lands of, 44 

Metals in India, 23 

Mice, white, 31 

Milburn's Oriental Commerce, xiii, 

Milk, Coco-nut, 15 

Milton quoted, 17, 42 

Minor Friars. See Franciscan. 

Missionaries Martyred. See Mar- 

Missions, Views of Jordanus on 
Indian, 55, 56 

Papal, in Armenia, 5, 6 

Mitford, 37 

Mogan, Plain of, 6, 50, 53 

Mohebar, 39, 41. See Maabar. 

Molebar (Malabar), 40 

Molephatam, 40, 41 

Molepoor, 40, 41 

Monarchies of South India, 39, 40, 

Monasteries in Tartary, 46 

Money, Paper, 46 

Monsters at Babylon, 49 

Monteith, General, quoted, 6 

Mooloopetta, 40 

Moorish Sea (Mediterranean), 53 

Moors (for Mahomedans), 24, 40 

Moosh, 8 

Moslem Kings in India, 40 

Mosques made out of Temples and 
Churches, 23 

Mouat's Andamans, Dr., 44 

Mules not used in Lesser India, 12 

Mul-Java, 33 

Multan, 23 

Muratori, ix, 

Murray, Hugh, his Polo, xiii, xvi, 

Murray's Guide, The Medieval, xvii. 

Musk, 47 



Mus Malabaricus, 29 
Mysore, Buchanan's, 17 

Nadir Shah, 7 

Naft (Naphtlia), 50. See also 10 

Nairs of Malabar ; their law of in- 
heritance, 32, 40 

Naked Tribes, 30, 43 

Nakhchevan, 4, 6 

Namadus, vi. 

Nargil (Coco-mit), 15 

Narsinga, King of, 40 

Nascarini (Nazrani or Indian Chris- 
tians), vii. 

Natchez, 32 

Naxuana of Ptolemy, 4 

Negroes described, 43 

Negropont, 2 

Nerbudda, vi, 33 

Nestorians, vi, 9, 51 

The, by the Eev. G-. P. Bad- 
ger, 51 

Nicolaus Eomanus, vi. 

Niger, Tribes on, 32 

Night and Day, variation of, 34 

Brightness and glory of, in 

India, 34 

Noah, Armenian Traditions of, 3, 4 

Nose, flat, a beauty among Mongols, 

Nutmegs, 31 

Nuts of India, 16 

Odericus Ratnaldus, vii. 
Odoricus of Friuli, Traveller and 

Saint, ix, 31, 33, 38, 40 
Ogero the Dane, 40 
on. Coco-nut, 15 

Okkodai, Khan of the Tartars, 47 
Onagri, 9 
Orang-utang, 31 
Oranges, 15 
Ormi (Urumia), 5 
Ormus, X, 11 
Ornas. See Verna. 
Orogan (error for Mogan), 6 
Osbet, 54 
Ossetes, 51 
Ounces, 18, 43 

Oxen, Hindu reverence for, 25 
Oxus, 10 
Wood's, 11 

Pagan Prophecies of Latin domina- 
tion, 23 
Pala, name of Jack-tree in Pliny, 13 
Palmyra, 16 

Paludanus, 13, 14 

Pandarani, xiv, 40 

Paper Money in Tartary, 46 

Paradise, Terrestrial, 42, 43 

Parmeswar, 24 

Paroco, a city of India (Baroch), 
V, vi. 

Parody of Catholic rites, 47 

Parrot's Ascent of Arai-at, 3, 4 

Parrots, 19, 29 

Parsis described, 21 

Peacocks, 20 

Pearl Fishery, 28, 40, 41 

Pegua (?), 10 

Penny Cyclopaedia, quoted, 2, 6, 8, 
28, 29, 43, 44, 58 

Pepper, xiii ; gardens, xv ; forest, 
XV; described, 27 

Long, 27, 28 ; not indigenous 

in the I. Archipelago, 31 

Persecu.tion ; of Dioclesian, 5 ; of 
preachers by the Saracens, x, 55, 56 

Persia ; Notices of, 7 et seq. ; 52. 
See Emperor and Empire. See 
also Kinneir. 

Peter, a Franciscan Martyr, xii. 

Pheasants, 20 

Pitch, Mineral, 10 

Pila, Tamul name of Jack-fi'uit, 13 

Pii-ates in Malabar, 40 

Planets as seen in India, 34 

PUny; western limit of India accord- 
ing to, 11 ; his account of Jack- 
fruit, 13; of the Banyan, 17; of 
Cassia, 22 ; of Pepper, 28 

Podargus, 37 

Pole-star, height of, 34 

Poliars, a forest race, 35 

Polo, Marco, iii, v, viii ; his Coilon, 
xiii, XV, xvi ; his coincidences with 
Jordanus, xvii ; his division of the 
Indies, 11 ; quoted with reference 
to birds and beasts of India, 19 ; 
big bats, 19 ; armament of Indian 
troops, 20 ; honesty of Brahmans, 
22 ; horrid heat, 22 ; admii-ation of 
black skins, 25 ; Indian Islands, 
28; Ceylon, 28; great ruby, 30; 
pygmies, 31 ; dress of Indian kings, 
32 ; Maabar, 39 ; king of Cail, 40 ; 
Male and Female Islands, 44 ; 
Andamans, 44; bounty of the G. 
Khan, 46 ; Paper-money, 46 ; City 
of Kinsai; 47 ; burial of G. Khan, 
48 ; fire of Baku, 51, 53 ; division 
of Tartar conquests, 54 

Murray's edition of, xiii, xviii ; 

Baldello Boni's, xiii. 

Polumbrum or Polembum, xv. 

Pomegranates, 15 



Population ; of Tabriz, 7 ; fallacious 
estimates of, 8; of Eastern Coun- 
tries, 11; of Cathay, 47, 54; of 
Ethiopia (?), 54 

Porcelain, China, 48 

Preachers ; wanted for India, 55 

Saracen, 55 

Preaching among idolaters of India, 

Friars. See Dominicans. 

Prester John, 42, 45 

Priests, idolatrous, 24 

Prophecies of Latin domination, 23 

Ptolemy ; his Supara, vi ; stories re- 
ceived from Arab Sailors, xviii ; 
his Naxuana, 4 ; his Agmatse, 

Pudefitania of Conti (Pudipatanam), 

Pulney HiUs, 35 

Quails, 19, 20 

Quetif and Echard, v. 

Quilacare (Coilacaud) King of, 33 

Quilon ; the Columbum of Jordanus, 
vi, xii-xvii 34, 39, 41. (See Colum- 
bum, Coulcmi, etc.) 

Eaces, wild, 35 

Eain, absence of, 8 ; scarcity of, 12 

Eainy season, 12 

Eajmahl Forests, 18 

Eakshasas, 35 

Eamusio, xiv, xvi, 11, 24, 40 

Eats^ gigantic, 29 

Eecueil de Voyages et de Memoires, 

i, iii, iv, ix, 3, 42, 47, 48, 54 
Eeg-rawan, 11 
Eeinaud — Eelation des Voyages faits 

par les Ai-abes, etc., vi, xiv, 33 
Eenaudot, xiv. 
Eennel, xiii 
Eeptiles, 18, 19 
Eesemblances to E. Cath. rites, 24, 

33, 46 
Eheede's Hortus Malabaricus, 13, 

14, 17 
Ehinoceros, 18 
Ehipsime, Virgin Martyr, 5 
Ehubarb, 47 

Eichardson's Persian Diction., 17 
Eice, 12 

Eivers of Paradise, 42, 43 
Eoc, The, 42 
Eoch-Alum, 58 
KoKburgh, fjuoled, 17 

Eubies, great, 30 
Eubruquis, William, 
Eukka, 58 
Eussia, 54 


Sacrifices; Idol, in India, 24, in 
Tartary, 46 ; of sheep on a cross, 
51 ; suicidal, 32 

Samarkand, viii 

Sauiosata, viii 

Samudra Eaja, 40 

SandhiUs, Flowing, 10 

Sap of trees for liquor, 15, 16 

Sappan-wood, 27 

Saracens; i. e., Mahomedans, x, 9, 
23, 41, 58; their preachers and 
persecution of Christians, 55 ; ra- 
vage India, 23 

Saracenized Tartars, 9 

Sati, 20 

Sava, 53 

Scala, 5 

Schismatic Christians, vii. 5, 6, 8, 
9, 55, 58 

Scotch lady's musquito, 29 

Scott, Walter, 50 

Scott-Waring, 10 

Seamanship, eastern and western, 

Sebast, Sebasteia, 6 

Sefara, see Supera 

Self-immolation, stories of, 33 

Semiscat, a see under Sultania, vii 

Semur (?), a city of Armenia, 7 

Serpents ; in India, 18, 35 ; two-, 
three-, and five-headed, 19; in 
Armenia, 4, 5, 7 ; horned, and with 
gems, 43 ; vast, in iEthiopia, 45 ; 
in Chaldaea, 49 

Sevan, Lake, 7 

Severac, birthplace of Jordanus, iv 

Shaki and Barki — Arabic names for 
Jack-fruit, 14 

Shadows, direction of, 34 

Sheep sacrificed on cross, 51 

Siagois (Siyagosh, the lynx), 18 

Sicily, whirlpools, etc., 1 

Silk in Persia, 9 

Silem, see 8ylen and Ceylon 

Simon, Apostle, in Armenia, 4, 5 

Sindbad the sailor, 31, 42 

Sindh, 11, 12; Eeports on, 12 

Singuyli, King of, 40, 41 

Sister's son inherits, 32 

Sivas, 6 

Slaves, funeral sacrifice of, 47 

Smith and Dwight, Ecsearches in 
Armenia, 3, 4, 5, 6 

Smith's Diet, of the Bible, 4 



Smith's Diet, of Greek and Roman 

g-eograpliy, 6 
Smyth, Admiral, the Mediterranean, 

1, 2 
Soldan of Babylon (in Egypt), 46 
Soldiers in India, 20 
Somniario del Regni, etc., in Ramusio, 

xiv, XV, 24, 40 
SpaiTows, 19 
Sperm-whale, 44 
Spices, 23, 27, 30, 31 
Spiders, Wasps that kill, 35 
Springs, mii-aculous, 4; of pitch, 

Squirrels, flying, 29 
Stanley, Dr. Ai-thur P., quoted, 51 
Stewart, Lt.-Col. Patrick, R.E., 50 
Steiler's Hand Atlas, 6 
Stitched Vessels, 53 
Stones, Pretious, 20; in Ceylon, 30, 

41 ; in serpents, 43 ; in the heads 

of dragons, 42 ; in Ethiopia, 45 
Sugar, Pahn, 16, 17 
Sultania, viii, 9 
Sugarcane, 21 
Sumatra, 30, 31, 32, 44, 55 
Supera, a port of India supposed 

near Surat, v, vi 
Sui'at, vi 
Sui'pHce, 24 
Sylen (Ceylon), or Silem, 28, 30, 41 

(see Ceylon) 
Sylvester, St., 5 

Tabriz, v, vi, viii, G, 7, 8, 9 

Talipat-tree, 30 

Tamarinds; and meaning of the 
word, 21 

Tamerlane, viii 

Tamul words, xiii, 13, 19 

Tamuls in Ceylon, 43 

Tana, an Indian port near Bombay, 
vi, vii, ix 

Tana, Tanan (Tanais), an ancient 
factory on the Sea of Azoph, viii, 53 

Tapti river, vi 

Tari, Tadi, 16 

Tartar, The Great, 46, 47, 48, 54 

Tartars ; in Armenia, 7, 24 ; different 
empires of, 54 

Tartary, 10, 46, 53 

Tauris (see Tabriz). 

Telenc (Telingana), an Indian king- 
dom, 39, 41 

Teloogoo, 29 

Tennent, Sir J. E., see Ceylon 

Terrors of Babylon, 49 

Thaddeus, the Apostle, 5 

Thaurisium, 6 (see Tabriz) 

Thebes (Greece), 2 

Theistic feeling among Hindus, 24 

Thibet, 47 

Thomas the Apostle, Saint, x, 5, 23 

a Franciscan niartyi', xi 

Thucydides, 2 

Tigris, 49 

Tipura, 32 

Tiridates, K. of Armenia, 5 

Toddy, process of drawing, 16, 17 

Tokat, 6 

Tongan (Daumghan), v 

Tortoise, monster, 49 

Toulouse, 47 

Transoxiana, 54 

Travancore, people of, 22 

Treasure of the sea, 43 

Trebizond, 6, 53 

Triad, the Buddhist, 25 

Trinity, alleged belief in the Holy, 
in India, 24, in Ava, 25 

Troglodytes Ichthyophagi, 45 

Tsjaka (Malayalim name of Jack- 
fruit), 13 

Tm^ks, 56, 57, 58 ; for Mahomedans, 
24 ; their pococurantism, 58 

Turkish Saracens, 23 

Tui-key (in Asia), 57 

Tuticorin, 40 

Two-headed monsters, 49 ; also see 

Ultramarine, 9 

Unicorn, 18, 42 

Upas tree, 31 

Ur of the Chaidees, 9 

Ural River, 54 

Urfa, 9 

Urumia, Lake, 6 ; city, 5 

Uzbeg- 54 

Variation of day and night in In- 
dia, 12, 34 
Vasco de Gama, 27 
Venice, merchants of, in Malabar, 


Venus seen in broad day, 34 
Verna, an Eastern see, viii 
Vessels of India, 16, 53 ; of Cathay, 

XV, 54 
Vincent's Periplus of the Erythraean 

Sea, vi 
Vines ; of Noah, 4 ; in India, 15 
Virgin mai-tyrs, 5 

only can take a unicorn, 43 

Viverra Civctta, 43 

Vows of self-immolation, 32 



Wadding, Annales Minorum, v 

Walckenaer, Baron, iv 

War, elephants used in, 26 

of elephants among themselves, 


Warangol, 39 

Wasps, remarkable, 35 

Water, marvellous, 29 

Wellsted's Travels in Arabia, 45 

Wheat in India, 12 

Widow -burning, 20 

Wild ; tribes in India, 35 ; men, 43 

Willows exuding manna, 8 

Wilson, H. H., quoted, xiv 

Wine ; not made in India, 15 ; sub- 
stitutes for, 15, 16 

Wood's Oxus, quoted, 11 
World's duration according to Hin- 
dus, 25 

Yadu family, 39 
Yemi-li (see Hyemo) 
Yezidis, 51 

Zachary, an Armen. Archbishop, 5 
a Genoese Captain, 56 

Zamorin of Calicut, 40 
Zebra, 44 
Zoroaster, 6 


P. viii. Dele note 2, which is based on an oversight. 
P. 2. Last line of note on Charybdis, insert "which are" after 

P. 5. Note 2, last word of second line, for " were" read " was." 
P. 12. Note 1, first line, for " half-past nine" read " half-past eight. 
P. 14. Note 1, first line, for " Amha" read " Anba." 
P. 36, § 33, first line, read " a certain big bird like a kite." 


Jordanus, Catalan!